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|Bitcoins buy online||CAM and stack air sampler design guide. Self-expanding annular and internal bentonite microfluidic cell culture systems bettinger bluff were developed microfluidic cell culture systems bettinger bluff isolate discrete sampling zones. Online soccer live betting self-consistent Green-function description of concentrated polymer solutions and dense polymeric melts is presented. For the rest of backhouse betting trip they talked about her school, there was a chance she could suffer organ damage because of the prolonged poor blood supply, he had to tell Major General Harold R. Knitting allows a high individual adaptability of the geometry and properties of flat-knitted spacer fabrics. These major steps include: preparation method H 2 SO 4 -HF Titanium dissolution ; aliquoting and dilution within a dissolution; measurement and long-term behavior of the ICP and AA instruments, as monitored by the measurement of standards and blanks embedded within each block of samples for the measurement sequence. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses graphical models GM for considering the spatial dependencies between sensor measurements in dense sensor networks or arrays to improve damage localization accuracy in structural health monitoring SHM application.|
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C to deg. C the maximum COP values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of 0. The maximum exergetic efficiency values of the single effect refrigeration systems are in the range of Thermodynamic modelling and parametric study of a low temperature vapour compression- absorption system based on modified Gouy-Stodola equation. Present paper thermodynamically analyses a VCAS vapour compression- absorption system with carbon dioxide compression section and ammonia-water absorption section as refrigerants and determines the optimal condensing temperature of cascade condenser using modified Gouy-Stodola equation.
The optimum cascade condenser temperature maximises the overall COP, rational efficiency and minimises the total irreversibility rate of the VCAS system. The value of optimum condensing temperature and its corresponding maximum COP, and minimum irreversibility rate are discussed for a wide range of operating conditions. Further, a comparative study of TSVCS two stage vapour compression system used for low temperature refrigeration applications with VCAS shows that at design point, primary energy consumption is reduced by But the total irreversibility rate of VCAS is Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around nm.
Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar DIAL. Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of MHz and an average power of 1.
The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator OPO in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of MHz and an average power of 1. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of Hz. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical m and horizontal 20 km resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed.
Very low water vapour mixing ratios ppmv and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Sampler bias -- Phase 1. This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler , grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler , sludge sampler and universal sampler , is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted.
Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias. The water vapour self-continuum absorption in the infrared atmospheric windows: new laser measurements near 3. Full Text Available The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long-standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences.
In recent years, we have determined the self-continuum absorption of water vapour at different spectral points of the atmospheric windows at 4. These accurate experimental constraints have been used to adjust the last version 3. In the present work, the self-continuum cross-sections, CS, are newly determined at 3.
These new data allow extending the spectral coverage of the 4. By considering high temperature literature data together with our data, the temperature dependence of the self-continuum is also obtained. The amplitude, the temperature dependence, and the physical origin of the water vapour absorption continuum are a long-standing issue in molecular spectroscopy with direct impact in atmospheric and planetary sciences. The processes governing multilayer nucleation in the chemical vapour deposition CVD of graphene are important for obtaining high-quality monolayer sheets, but remain poorly understood.
Here we show that higher-order carbon species in the gas-phase play a major role in multilayer nucleation Method performance validation of total mercury Hg testing in the biological samples by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrophotometer CV-AAS has been done. The method performance covering limit of detection LOD , accuracy, precision and bias. The concentration of mercury in each samples was determined at the condition of operation were stirring time T 1 70 seconds, delay time T 2 15 seconds, heating time T 3 13 seconds and cooling time T 4 of 25 seconds.
From the validation result showed that the content of mercury total was in the range of certified values. The total mercury content Hg in human hair were varied from Emission, absorption and group delay of microwaves in the atmosphere in relation to water vapour content over the Indian subcontinent.
Sen, A. The advent of satellite communication for global coverage has apparently indicated a renewed interest in the studies of radio wave propagation through the atmosphere, in the VHF, UHF and microwave bands. The three basic parameters of significance to radio propagation are thermal emission, absorption and group delay of the atmosphere, all of which are controlled largely by the water vapor content in the atmosphere, particular at microwave bands.
As good emitters are also good absorbers, the atmospheric emission as well as the absorption attains a maximum at the frequency of However, all three parameters exhibit a similar seasonal dependence originating presumably from the seasonal dependence of the water vapor content. Some of the interesting results obtained from analyses of radiosonde data over the Indian subcontinent collected by the India Meteorological Department is presented.
Performance improvements on passive activated charcoal Rn samplers. Improvements have been made on passive activated charcoal Rn samplers with sintered metal filters. Based on the samplers of good adaptability to temperature and humidity developed before, better charcoal was selected to further improve their performance in radon absorption ability and moisture-resistance. And charcoal quantity in samplers was strictly controlled. The integration time constant of the improved samplers was about 4.
As the sampler was combined with gamma spectrometer to measure radon concentration, the calibration factor was 0. The improved samplers are suited to accurately determine the indoor and outdoor average radon concentration under conditions of great variation in temperature and humidity. Currently, data are available for 12 globally distributed stations. We explain particularities of retrieving the water vapour isotopologue state vertical distribution of HO, HO, and HD16O and reveal the need for a new metadata template for archiving FTIR isotopologue data.
We describe the format of different data components and give recommendations for correct data usage. Data are provided as two data types. The first type is best-suited for tropospheric water vapour distribution studies disregarding different isotopologues comparison with radiosonde data, analyses of water vapour variability and trends, etc. Heavy water leak detection using diffusion sampler. This paper describes an application of tritium diffusion sampler for heavy water leak detection.
The diffusion sampler comprises an usual tritium counting glass vial with a special orifice. The counting vial has water vapour , deficient in HTO concentration. The HTO present outside diffuses in the vial through the orifice, gets exchanged with water of the wet filter paper kept at the bottom and the moisture in the vial atmosphere which has HTO concentration lower than that outside. This results in continuation of net movement of HTO in the vial. The exchanged tritium is counted in liquid scintillation spectrometer.
Vapours of organic matters were determined qualitatively employed with ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy. Experimental results showed that spectra of the vegetable oil vapour and the organic compound vapour could be obtained commendably, since ultra violet and visible spectrum of polyethylene film could be deducted by spectrograph zero setting. The method had a good reproducibility, the ultraviolet and visible absorption spectra of the vapours of sunflower seed oil in 10 times determination were absolutely the same.
The experimental result indicated that polyethylene film as a kind of medium could be used for qualitative analysis of ultraviolet and visible absorption spectroscopy. The method for determination of the vapours of the vegetable oils and organic compounds had the peculiarities of fast speed analysis, well reproducibility, accuracy and reliability and low cost, and so on. Ultraviolet and visible absorption spectrum of organic vapour could provide feature information of material vapour and structural information of organic compound, and provide a novel test method for identifying vapour of compound and organic matter.
Indoor Sampler Siting. Contaminant releases in or near a building can lead to significant human exposures unless prompt response is taken. Federal and local agencies are implementing programs to place air-monitoring samplers in buildings to quickly detect biological agents. We describe a probabilistic algorithm for siting samplers in order to detect accidental or intentional releases of biological material.
The algorithm maximizes the probability of detecting a release from among a suite of realistic scenarios. The scenarios may differ in any unknown, for example the release size or location, weather, mode of building operation, etc. The algorithm also can optimize sampler placement in the face of modeling uncertainties, for example the airflow leakage characteristics of the building, and the detection capabilities of the samplers. In an illustrative example, we apply the algorithm to a hypothetical room commercial building, finding optimal networks for a variety of assumed sampler types and performance characteristics.
We also discuss extensions of this work for detecting ambient pollutants in buildings, and for understanding building-wide airflow, pollutant dispersion, and exposures. In air-cooled water-LiBr absorption chillers the working conditions in the absorber and condenser are shifted to higher temperatures and concentrations, thereby increasing the risk of crystallisation.
To develop this technology, two main problems are to be addressed: the availability of new salt mixtures with wider range of solubility than water-LiBr, and advanced absorber configurations that enable to carry out simultaneously an appropriate absorption process and an effective air-cooling. One way of improving the solubility of LiBr aqueous solutions is to add other salts to create multicomponent salt solutions.
Cooling water temperatures in the range C were selected to simulate air-cooling thermal conditions. The results are compared with those obtained in the same experimental set-up with water-LiBr solutions. The control variables for the experimental study were: absorber pressure, solution Reynolds number, solution concentration and cooling water temperature. The parameters considered to assess the absorber performance were: absorber thermal load, mass absorption flux, degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber, and the falling film heat transfer coefficient.
The higher solubility of the multicomponent salt solution makes possible the operation of the absorber at higher salt concentration than with the conventional working fluid water-LiBr. Indigenous high volume air sampler. A high volume air sampler for use in assessing concentrations of low levels of air borne particulates has been fabricated. The sampler will be of use in radioactive installations, conventional industries and environmental pollution analysis.
It is comparable in performance with the imported Staplex air samplers. A turbine and motor system similar to the one found in conventional vacuum cleaners is used in its design. The sampler units can be produced in large numbers. The Liquid Vapour Interface. In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid- vapour interface, i. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from Fusion research and tritium removal facilities potentially handle large inventories of tritium gas HT.
A convenient method to determine the activity concentration of each species is necessary to assess the potential hazard since the radiological hazard of HTO is more than 10 4 that due to HT. Passive samplers for measuring tritiated water vapour HTO have been shown to be suitable for use indoors and outdoors.
These simple samplers consist of a standard mL liquid scintillation vial with a diffusion orifice that determines the sampling rate. The total tritium samplers described herein are passive or diffusion samplers that contain a small amount of AECL-proprietary wet-proofed catalyst fixed to the underside of the sampling heads to allow conversion of the HT to HTO that is subsequently collected in the sink, HTO , in the bottom of the sampler.
After an appropriate sampling time, liquid scintillation cocktail is added to the vial and the activity collected determined by liquid scintillation analysis. The sampling rates for the modified diffusion sampler were measured to be 4. Isokinetic sampler ; Amostrador isocinetico. Andrade, Luis Cesar C. Centro de Pesquisas. The Center of Research Leopoldo A.
Numerical study of the heat and material transport in the absorption of water vapour in aqueous LiBr solution; Numerische Untersuchung des Waerme- und Stofftransports bei der Absorption von Wasserdampf in waessriger LiBr-Loesung. Fachgebiet Technische Thermodynamik. These are often performed as horizontal tube bundes. As critical, the process limiting component in the literature the absorper is called, because of which the their running, coupled heat and material transport processes are more detailedly theoretically studied.
For this a model was developed, which maps starting from analytically describable physical connections the transport processes in the apparatus. The flow in the tube bundle is hereby divided in two sections, the flow in the liquid film on the tubes and the drop fall between the tubes. The basic equations are numerically solved under given boundary conditions, whereby for the description of the drop fall phase addititonally semi-empirical calculation approaches are used.
The results are elucidated by means of concentration and temperature profiles in the film. A distinctly faster formation of the temperature boundary layer than the concentration boundary layer in the fim is shown, which makes the material transport to the limiting transport process in the absorber, which is already known from experimental studies.
The physical plausibility of the model is by means of this fact confirmed by an analysis of the coupled transport processes by means of dimensionless characteristic numbers. Furthermore from the results an improvement of the heat and material transport at diminishing of the tube diameter can be derived. Just so by the results of the study an estimation method for the quality of the absorber by means of the subcooling is shown.
The AMU devices together with high speed TTL clocking circuitry are packaged in a hybrid which is also suitable for mounting on the detector. The module is in CAMAC format and provides eight signal channels, each recording signal amplitude versus time in cells at a sampling rate of up to MHz. Introduction to Sampler Compare. It samples from a collection of distributions with a collection of MCMC methods over a range of tuning parameters.
Then, using log density evaluations per uncorrelated observation as a figure of merit, it generates a grid of plots showing the results of the simulation. It comes with a collection of predefined distributions and samplers and provides R and C interfaces for defining additional ones. It also provides the means to import simulation data generated by external systems. This document provides background on the package and demonstrates the basics of running simulations, visualizing results, and defining distributions and samplers in R.
Detection of polar vapours. Apparatus for monitoring for polar vapours in a gas consists of i a body member defining a passage through which a continuous stream of the gas passes; ii an ionising source associated with a region of the passage such that ionization of the gas stream takes place substantially only within the region and also any polar vapour molecules present therein will react with the gas formed to generate ion clusters; and iii an electrode for collecting ions carried by the gas stream, the electrode being positioned in the passage downstream of the region and separated from the region by a sufficient distance to ensure that no substantial number of the gas ions formed in said region remains in the gas stream at the collector electrode whilst ensuring that a substantial proportion of the ion clusters formed in the region does remain in the gas stream at the collector electrode.
Triadic split-merge sampler. In machine vision typical heuristic methods to extract parameterized objects out of raw data points are the Hough transform and RANSAC. Bayesian models carry the promise to optimally extract such parameterized objects given a correct definition of the model and the type of noise at hand. A category of solvers for Bayesian models are Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Naive implementations of MCMC methods suffer from slow convergence in machine vision due to the complexity of the parameter space.
Towards this blocked Gibbs and split-merge samplers have been developed that assign multiple data points to clusters at once. In this paper we introduce a new split-merge sampler , the triadic split-merge sampler , that perform steps between two and three randomly chosen clusters.
This has two advantages. First, it reduces the asymmetry between the split and merge steps. Second, it is able to propose a new cluster that is composed out of data points from two different clusters. Both advantages speed up convergence which we demonstrate on a line extraction problem. We show that the triadic split-merge sampler outperforms the conventional split-merge sampler.
Although this new MCMC sampler is demonstrated in this machine vision context, its application extend to the very general domain of statistical inference. Vapour pressure of trideuterioammonia. Calado, J. Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon Portugal.
Centro de Quimica Estrutural. The H-to-D vapour -pressure isotope effect in liquid ammonia has been measured at 62 temperatures between K and K. Comparisons with the results of other authors were made in order to clarify some discrepancies found in the literature. Our values are in accord with the previous results of King et al.
The fitted equation was used in conjunction with the Clapeyron equation to calculate the difference in the molar enthalpies of vaporization between NH[sub 3] and ND[sub 3]. The quantification of the analytes in ET AAS is normally attained by the measurement and integration of transient absorbance. High degree of atomization and constant vapour transportation rate for the analyte atoms in the absorption volume are considered to be crucial to grant correctness of the measurements.
Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler. This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.
Atomic absorption instrument functional description. This report describes a proposed system for automating atomic absorption analysis. The system consists of two atomic absorption instruments and an automatic sampler that can be attached to either instrument. A computer program controls the sampling and gathers data. The program then uses the data to perform bookkeeping, data processing, and report writing.
The accuracy and precision of a new Isolok sampler configuration was evaluated using a recirculation flow loop. The evaluation was performed using two slurry simulants of Hanford high-level tank waste. Through testing, the capability of the Isolok sampler was evaluated. Sample concentrations were compared to reference samples that were simultaneously collected by a two-stage Vezin sampler.
The capability of the Isolok sampler to collect samples that accurately reflect the contents in the test loop improved — biases between the Isolok and Vezin samples were greatly reduce for fast settling particles. Vapour Pressure of Diethyl Phthalate. Each applicant for a license as a sampler and each An ultra wideband UWB sampler , realized using step recovery and Schottky diodes on coplanar waveguide, coplanar strips and slotlines, has been developed for UWB wireless communications and radar systems A passive sampler for atmospheric ozone.
A simple, cost-effective passive sampler has been developed for the determination of atmospheric ozone. This passive sampler is based on a colorant which fades upon reaction with ozone, whose concentration can be determined by reflectance measurement of the color change. Direct, on-site measurements are possible, and no chemical analyses are needed. Sampler design and validation studies have been carried out and included quantitative determination of color change vs exposure time days , color change vs.
With indigo carmine as the colorant, the detection limits are 30 ppb. Development of a new passive sampler based on diffusive milligel beads for copper analysis in water. Perez, M. Each sampling device was composed of a set of about 30 diffusive milligel DMG beads. Milligel beads with incorporated cation exchange resin Chelex particles were synthetized using an adapted droplet-based millifluidic process. Beads were assumed to be prolate spheroids, with a diameter of 1.
The milligel was controlled in chemical composition of hydrogel monomer, cross-linker, initiator and Chelex concentration and characterized in pore size. Two types of sampling devices were developed containing 7. For their use in water monitoring, the typical physico-chemical characteristics of the samplers , i. Sampler collection gadget for epilithic diatoms. This work present a new gadget for sampling epilithic diatoms from both lentic and lotic enviroments. The sampler consists of a polystyrene cylinder, left to float on the surface of the water, to which stone substrates are attached.
This epilithic diatom sampler EDS can be used to detect spatial and temporal richness and density variation in the study of the diatom community, as well as in water quality monitoring. Full Text Available This work present a new gadget for sampling epilithic diatoms from both lentic and lotic enviroments.
Effect of slow-solvent- vapour treatment on performance of polymer photovoltaic devices. In this work, enhanced poly 3-hexylthiophene :[6,6]-phenyl-Cbutyric acid methyl ester P3HT:PCBM bulkheterojunction photovoltaic devices are achieved via slow-solvent- vapour treatment. The correlations between the morphology of the active layer and the photovoltaic performance of polymer-based solar cell are investigated. The active layers are characterized by atomic force microscopy and optical absorption.
The results show that slow-solvent- vapour treatment can induce P3HT self-organization into an ordered structure, leading to the enhanced absorption and efficient charge transport. Distribution and excretion of inhaled mercury vapour. The toxic effects produced showed resemblances to signs of mercurialism in man. An attempt has been made to study the kinetics of absorption and excretion of mercury from measurements of the amounts excreted and stored in the tissues.
A small proportion is excreted into the gut. After about 10 days of continuous exposure a steady state is reached in which excretion balances absorption. During short exposures the turnover of mercury in all tissues except brain is fairly rapid and most of the mercury is cleared from the body within a week after exposure. The urinary excretion of mercury, during the initial stage of storage in the tissues and the final stage of clearance, shows divergencies from the simple exponential pattern; there appears to be a delay mechanism in the kidney which, in intermittent exposures, may result in the occurrence of peak excretion during periods of non-exposure.
After more prolonged exposures the mercury in the kidney appears to be converted to a form which is only very slowly excreted. The significance of the urinary excretion of mercury by man after industrial exposure to mercury vapour is discussed. The rat experiments suggest that single measurements will give only limited information concerning industrial conditions, but that an approximate assessment of the total absorbed during a working week would be obtained if it were possible to make a seven-day collection of urine.
Repeated measurements after exposure would yield information on the duration of exposure and would have some diagnostic value. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance. A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance QCM technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours.
Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt ES , coated the QCM electrode. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol.
The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient D of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics. Hair analysis as a useful procedure for detection of vapour exposure to chemical warfare agents: simulation of sulphur mustard with methyl salicylate.
Chemical warfare agents CWA are highly toxic compounds which have been produced to kill or hurt people during conflicts or terrorist attacks. Despite the fact that their use is strictly prohibited according to international convention, populations' exposure still recently occurred. Development of markers of exposure to CWA is necessary to distinguish exposed victims from unexposed ones.
We present the first study of hair usage as passive sampler to assess contamination by chemicals in vapour form. This work presents more particularly the hair adsorption capacity for methyl salicylate used as a surrogate of the vesicant sulphur mustard. Chemical vapours toxicity through the respiratory route has historically been defined through Haber's law's concentration-time Ct product, and vapour exposure of hair to methyl salicylate was conducted with various times or doses of exposure in the range of incapacitating and lethal Ct products corresponding to sulphur mustard.
Following exposure, extraction of methyl salicylate from hair was conducted by simple soaking in dichloromethane. The amount of methyl salicylate recovered from hair increased with time or dose of exposure. It showed a good correlation with the concentration-time product, suggesting that hair could be used like a passive sampler to assess vapour exposure to chemical compounds.
It introduces great perspectives concerning the use of hair as a marker of exposure to CWA. Statistical analysis of the DWPF prototypic sampler. The DWPF process will be controlled using assay measurements on samples of feed slurry. These slurries are radioactive, and thus will be sampled remotely. A Hydraguard trademark pump-driven sampler system will be used as the remote sampling device. A prototype Hydraguard trademark sampler has been studied in a full-scale mock-up of a DWPF process vessel.
Two issues were of dominant interest: 1 what accuracy and precision can be provided by such a pump-driven sampler in the face of the slurry rheology; and, if the Hydraguard trademark sample accurately represents the slurry in its local area, 2 is the slurry homogeneous enough throughout for it to represent the entire vessel?
To determine Hydraguard trademark Accuracy, a Grab Sampler of simpler mechanism was used as reference. This Low Grab Sampler was located as near to the intake port of the Hydraguard trademark as could be arranged. To determine Homogeneity, a second High Grab Sampler was located above the first. The data necessary to these determinations comes from the measurement system, so its important variables also affect the results. Thus, the design of the test involved not just Sampling variables, but also some of the Measurement variables as well.
However, the main concern was the Sampler and not the Measurement System, so the test design included only such measurement variables as could not be circumvented Vials, Dissolution Method, and Aliquoting. The test was executed by, or under the direct oversight of, expert technologists. It thus did not explore the many important particulars of ''routine'' plant operations such as Remote Sample Preparation or Laboratory Shift Operation. Tests of retention by several drying agents of HTO from an air stream containing HT have been performed.
An improved air sampler has been designed, 2 units constructed and components procured for 3 more. It is build into a rugged aluminum case and weighs approximately 11 kg overall, facilitating deployment in the field. Coalescent genealogy samplers : windows into population history. Coalescent genealogy samplers attempt to estimate past qualities of a population, such as its size, growth rate, patterns of gene flow or time of divergence from another population, based on samples of molecular data.
Genealogy samplers are increasingly popular because of their potential to disentangle complex population histories. In the last decade they have been widely applied to systems ranging from humans to viruses. Findings include detection of unexpected reproductive inequality in fish, new estimates of historical whale abundance, exoneration of humans for the prehistoric decline of bison and inference of a selective sweep on the human Y chromosome. This review summarizes available genealogy- sampler software, including data requirements and limitations on the use of each program.
Overflow type sodium sampler for FBTR circuits. Obtaining a representative sample is crucial for getting reliable results in sodium analysis. Sampling liquid sodium reliability is complicated since impurities segregate while cooling. Selective sorption of certain elements calls for use of different crucible materials for various sodium impurities.
Sampling methods currently in use such as flow through sampling and dip sampling are not the proper methods as they can not take care of the above problems. An overflow type sampler where the entire sample contained in a crucible can be used for analysis thus obviating problems due to segregation has been developed for use in Fast Breeder Test Reactor FBTR.
This report describes the construction and operation of this sampler. Operability test report for BA flow proportional sampler. This operability report will verify that the BA flow proportional sampler functions as intended by design. Particle capturing performance of South African non corrosive samplers.
This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler RGS for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.
A programmable air sampler with adsorption tubes. At thirty-two sampling points these devices were placed to collect the tracer substances in adsorption tubes for subsequent laboratory analysis in the Environment Institute of the JRC Ispra. The Air Sampler is also suitable for monitoring the environment, particularly of industrial emitters or landfills, by sampling of volatile substances. The Air Sampler AS3 is a portable, user-friendly instrument due to light weight, ruggedness and reliable operation.
It is capable of fully automatic sampling of air and gas with 24 adsorption tubes and program-controlled gas flow. Collection times can be programmed freely between 1 sec and 8 days and waiting times between 1 sec and 30 days. Programming is possible via keyboard, memory card or serial interface. A protocol of sampling control data is stored on a memory card giving documentation of sampling conditions. On the memory card there is space for the storage of 10 sampling programs and 10 sets of sampling control data.
Before the start of ETEX the AS3 was used in a measurement campaign to measure the background concentrations of the perfluorocarbon tracers in Austria. In the provinces of Upper Austria and Salzburg the Air Sampler is used by the departments for environmental protection for the monitoring of BTX-concentrations in air. We analyze the problem of preparing quantum Gibbs states of lattice spin Hamiltonians with local and commuting terms on a quantum computer and in nature.
Our central result is an equivalence between the behavior of correlations in the Gibbs state and the mixing time of the semigroup which drives the system to thermal equilibrium the Gibbs sampler. We consider two distinct classes of Gibbs samplers , one of them being the well-studied Davies generator modelling the dynamics of a system due to weak-coupling with a large Markovian environment. We show that their spectral gap is independent of system size if, and only if, a certain strong form of clustering of correlations holds in the Gibbs state.
Therefore every Gibbs state of a commuting Hamiltonian that satisfies clustering of correlations in this strong sense can be prepared efficiently on a quantum computer. As concrete applications of our formalism, we show that for every one-dimensional lattice system, or for systems in lattices of any dimension at temperatures above a certain threshold, the Gibbs samplers of commuting Hamiltonians are always gapped, giving an efficient way of preparing the associated Gibbs states on a quantum computer.
Validation of ammonia diffusive and active samplers in a controlled atmosphere test facility using traceable Primary Standard Gas Mixtures. Martin, Nicholas A. Intensive animal farming, the increased use of fertilizers, and certain industrial processes are believed to be responsible for the observed increases in the amount fraction of ammonia NH3 found in Europe. NH3 contributes to eutrophication and acidification of land and freshwater, potentially leading to a loss of biodiversity and undesirable changes to the ecosystem.
It also contributes to the formation of secondary particulate matter PM formation, which is associated with poor air quality and adverse health outcomes. Measurements of ambient ammonia are principally carried out with low-cost diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, with each method delivering time-integrated values over the monitoring period. However, such techniques have not yet been extensively validated.
The goal of this work was to provide improvements in the metrological traceability through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates. All devices were simultaneously exposed for either 28 days or 14 days dependent on sampler type in a controlled atmosphere test facility CATFAC containing traceable amount fractions of humidified ammonia using new stable ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures developed by gravimetry at NPL, under a wide range of conditions that are relevant to ambient monitoring.
Online continuous monitoring of the ammonia test atmospheres was carried out by extractive sampling, employing a calibrated cavity ring-down spectrometer, which had been modified to account for cross interference by water vapour. Vapour pressures and enthalpies of vapourization of a series of the linear aliphatic nitriles.
Kovat's indices of these compounds were measured by capillary gas-chromatography. Vapour trap development and operational experience. Sodium aerosols have the unpleasant characteristic that they deposit at places with low temperature level.
This effect can be utilized when sodium aerosols are to be trapped at places which are determined beforehand. Thus vapour traps were developed which can filter sodium vapour from the cover gas. By this means the necessity was eliminated to heat all gas lines and gas systems with trace heaters just as all sodium lines are heated.
The vapour traps were supposed to enable maintenance free operation, i. Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate MeS, as a model chemical vapour , into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud.
Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system. Intercomparison of atmospheric water vapour measurements at a Canadian High Arctic site.
Water vapour is a critical component of the Earth system. Techniques to acquire and improve measurements of atmospheric water vapour and its isotopes are under active development. This work presents a detailed intercomparison of water vapour total column measurements taken between and at a Canadian High Arctic research site Eureka, Nunavut.
Instruments include radiosondes, sun photometers, a microwave radiometer, and emission and solar absorption Fourier transform infrared FTIR spectrometers. The one exception in the observed high correlation is the comparison between the microwave radiometer and a radiosonde product, which had a correlation coefficient of 0.
A variety of biases affecting Eureka instruments are revealed and discussed. In addition, a new dataset derived from Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer AERI measurements is shown to provide accurate water vapour measurements e. CAM and stack air sampler design guide. The seven CAMs scheduled to be upgraded by Project S during are expected to provide valuable experience for the three remaining projects. The attached document provides design guidance for the standardized High Level Waste air sampling system.
It is built into a rugged aluminum case and weighs approximately 11 kg overall, facilitating deployment in the field. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.
Half-liter supernatant sampler system engineering work plan. The IPM project has proposed the development of several new sampler systems. These systems include a 0. The 0. This sampler is intended to be used in conjunction with the existing ml bottle-on-a-string. The 3-l and l systems will be based on the Savannah River Site's sampler system and will support IPM sampling needs in the 3 to liter range.
Most of the hot testing required for design of the IPM must be accomplished in the next 3 years. This work plan defines the tasks associated with the development of a 0. Specifically, this work plan will define the scope of work, identify organizational responsibilities, identify major technical requirements, describe configuration control and verification requirements, and provide estimated costs and schedule.
The sampler system will be fully operational, including trained staff and operating procedures, upon completion of this task. Functional design criteria for the retained gas sampler system. This report describes the functional criteria for the design of the RGSS components. The primary function of the Sampler is to capture a representative waste sample from a tank and transport the sample with minimal loss of gas content from the tank to the laboratory.
The function of the Extruder is to transfer the waste sample from the Sampler to the Extractor. The function of the Extractor is to separate the gases from the liquids and solids, measure the relative volume of gas to determine the void fraction, and remove and analyze the gas constituents.
Appendix Maenhaut of the University of Gent. Each participant was provided with such a sampler so that comparable samples will be obtained by each of the participating groups. Thus, in order to understand the characteristics of this sampler , we have undertaken several characterization studies in which we have examine the aerodynamic collection characteristics of the impactor inlet and the reproducibility of the sample mass collection.
The sampler does provide a collection efficiency that follows the guidelines for a PM 10 sampler. Comparing one of the original samplers built at the University of Gent with a unit built from the same plans at Clarkson University showed good reproducibility in mass collection. An externally heated copper vapour laser. For the laser to operate, copper coupons position along the length of a ceramic tube must be heated sufficiently to create an appropriate vapour pressure.
The Cylindrical graphite heating element is shaped to compensate for the large radiation end losses of the laser tube. The use of an external heater saves the expensive high-current-voltage switching device from heating the laser tube, as in most commercial lasers.
This feature is especially important given the intermittent usage typical of experimental research. As well, the heater enables better parametric control of the laser output when studying the lasing of copper or other vapour. This report outlines the lasing process in copper vapour , describes in detail all three major laser sub-systems: the laser body; the laser tube heater; the high voltage pulsed discharge; and, reports parametric measurements of the individual sub-systems and the laser system as a whole.
Also included are normal operating procedures to heat up, run and shut down the laser. Fractional separation of hydrocarbon vapours. A process is described for converting higher boiling hydrocarbons to lower boiling hydrocarbons by subjecting them at elevated temperatures to a conversion operation, then separating the higher and lower boiling fractions.
The separation takes place while the reaction products are maintained in the vapor phase by contact with a mass of solid porous material which has little or no catalytic activity but does have a preferential absorption property for higher boiling hydrocarbons so that the lower boiling part of the reaction products pass through the separation zone while the heavier hydrocarbons are retained.
The separation is accomplished without substantial loss of heat of these reaction products. Environmental monitoring of tritium in air with passive diffusion samplers. This paper reports on a field trail in which outdoor air was sampled with an active reference sampler and several passive HTO-in-air samplers simultaneously carried out at Chalk River Laboratories. Both passive and active samplers were changed on an approximately monthly schedule from September 2 to April Average temperatures for the sampling intervals ranged from A total of passive HTO-in-air sampler measurements were made during the seven sampling intervals.
As expected, the samplers prepared with the water-glycol solution performed more consistently than the samplers prepared with water only. Good agreement between passive and active sampler measurements was observed throughout the field trial.
Retained gas sampler interim safety assessment. Purpose of the RGS is to help characterize the gas species retained in the tank waste; the information will be used to refine models that predict the gas-producing behavior of the waste tank. The RGS will take samples of the tank from top to bottom; these samples will be analyzed for gas constituents.
The proposed action is required as part of an evaluation of mitigation concepts for eliminating episodic gas releases that result in high hydrogen concentrations in the tank dome space. An innovative discrete multilevel sampler design.
When combined with appropriately-sized direct push soil sampling technologies, high resolution aquifer characterization can be achieved during initial site assessment or remediation monitoring activities. The sampler is constructed from 1-inch diameter PVC well materials, containing polyethylene tubing threaded through PVC disks. Self-expanding annular and internal bentonite seals were developed which isolate discrete sampling zones.
The DMLS design allows customization of sampling and isolation zone lengths to suit site-specific goals. Installation of the DMLS is achieved using a temporary, expendable-tipped casting driven by direct push methods. This technique minimizes mobilization costs, site and soil column disturbances, and allows rapid installation in areas of limited overhead clearance. Successful pilot installations of the DMLS prototype have been made at a former manufactured gas plant MGP site and a diesel fuel spill site.
Analysis of groundwater samples from these sites, using relative compound distributions and contaminant concentration profiling, confirmed that representative discrete samples were collected. This design provides both economical and versatile groundwater monitoring during all phases of site assessment and remediation. Air sampler performance at Ford's farm range. An air-sampling system for a large-caliber depleted uranium DU penetrator firing range was tested.
The objectives of the test were: to determine the bias between the monitoring readings and DU concentrations; and to determine if the target bay real-time monitor RTM tracks the decaying dust concentration. The test procedure was to operate total and respirable airborne particle samplers adjacent to the target bay monitors.
A series of air samples was also taken after the test firings adjacent to the target bay RTM. Exhaust particle samples were analyzed for gross alpha, gross beta and uranium content. The target bay RTM correlated well 0. Average concentration from the RTM did not correlate with either the long-term total or respirable sampler DU concentrations. The monitor used to confirm a low dust concentration when the door is open correlated well 0. In the ventilation discharge, the long-term average monitor readings did not correlate with DU concentrations, probably due to levels near lower detection limits.
Smearable surface-contamination samples showed highest contamination on the equipment, gravel floor and exhaust intake. The location air-intake contamination increased over the first 3 rounds. Contamination was reduced by a low-pressure water spray washdown to about the same concentration as often the second round, then remained at about twice the level. Performance characteristics of a low-volume PM10 sampler. Four identical PM10 pre-separators, along with four identical low-volume 1m3 hr-1 total suspended particulate TSP samplers were tested side-by-side in a controlled laboratory particulate matter PM chamber.
A radon progeny sampler for the determination of effective dose. The He- Sampler comprises a wire screen pre-separator, matched to the nasal deposition, and a wire screen collector, matched to the respiratory tract collection. As a first approximation, the DCF is proportional to the collected fraction. The HE- Sampler response was simulated for a range of radon progeny size distributions to determine the error in the estimated DCF values.
The simulation results show that the HE- Sampler is relatively insensitive to variations in sampling rate and in the screen parameters, particularly for environmental exposure. Optimal relaxed causal sampler using sampled-date system theory. The formulaic details of the ASP theory are described fully and the improvements are demonstrated through careful comparisons with accepted alternative results and experimental data.
The new theory has been used as the basis for a new computer code called ASP3D Advanced Small Perturbation - 3D , which also is briefly described with representative results. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a flat-plate planform model of an advanced fighter configuration. The test objectives were to obtain and evaluate the low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a candidate configuration for the integration of several new innovative wing designs.
The flat plate test allowed for the initial evaluation of the candidate planform and was designated as the baseline planform for the innovative wing design study. Low-speed longitudinal aerodynamic data were obtained over a range of freestream dynamic pressures from 7. The aerodynamic data are presented in coefficient form for the lift, induced drag, and pitching moment. Flow-visualization results obtained were photographs of the flow pattern over the flat plate model in the water tunnel for angles-of-attack from 10 to 40 deg.
The force and moment coefficients and the flow-visualization photographs showed the linear and nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics due to attached flow and vortical flow over the flat plate model. Comparison between experiment and linear theory showed good agreement for the lift and induced drag; however, the agreement was poor for the pitching moment.
Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B aircraft. Analytical design and wind tunnel test evaluations covering the feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing had alleviation to the model B are described.
Aerodynamic improvement offered by wing tip extension and winglet individually, and the combined aerodynamic and weight improvements when wing load alleviation is combined with the tip extension or the winglet are evaluated. Results are presented in the form of incremental effects on weight mission range, fuel usage, cost, and airline operating economics.
The ACFS is a full-mission flight simulator which provides an excellent platform for the critical evaluation of emerging flight systems and aircrew performance. The propulsion and flight dynamics models were evaluated using classical flight test techniques.
The aerodynamic performance model of the ACFS was found to realistically represent that of current day, medium range transport aircraft. Recommendations are provided to enhance the capabilities of the ACFS to a level forecast for transport aircraft. Efficient and rapid flight test capabilities were developed for estimating highly nonlinear models of airplane aerodynamics over a large flight envelope.
Results showed that the flight maneuvers developed, used in conjunction with the fuzzy-logic system identification algorithms, produced very good model fits of the data, with no model structure inputs required, for flight conditions ranging from cruise to departure and spin conditions. Diversionary device history and revolutionary advancements. Diversionary devices also known as flash bangs or stun grenades were first employed about three decades ago.
These devices produce a loud bang accompanied by a brilliant flash of light and are employed to temporarily distract or disorient an adversary by overwhelming their visual and auditory senses in order to gain a tactical advantage. Early devices that where employed had numerous shortcomings. Over time, many of these deficiencies were identified and corrected. This evolutionary process led to today's modern diversionary devices.
These present-day conventional diversionary devices have undergone evolutionary changes but operate in the same manner as their predecessors. In essence these diversionary devices are small pyrotechnic bombs that produce a high point-source pressure in order to achieve the desired far-field effect. This high point-source pressure can make these devices a hazard to the operator, adversaries and hostages even though they are intended for 'less than lethal' roles.
A revolutionary diversionary device has been developed that eliminates this high point-source pressure problem and eliminates the need for the hazardous pyrotechnic flash powder composition. This new diversionary device employs a fuel charge that is expelled and ignited in the atmosphere. This process is similar to a fuel air or thermobaric explosion, except that it is a deflagration, not a detonation, thereby reducing the overpressure hazard.
This technology reduces the hazard associated with diversionary devices to all involved with their manufacture, transport and use. An overview of the history of diversionary device development and developments at Sandia National Laboratories will be presented.
Recent Advances in Biointegrated Optoelectronic Devices. With recent progress in the design of materials and mechanics, opportunities have arisen to improve optoelectronic devices , circuits, and systems in curved, flexible, stretchable, and biocompatible formats, thereby enabling integration of customized optoelectronic devices and biological systems. Here, the core material technologies of biointegrated optoelectronic platforms are discussed.
An overview of the design and fabrication methods to form semiconductor materials and devices in flexible and stretchable formats is presented, strategies incorporating various heterogeneous substrates, interfaces, and encapsulants are discussed, and their applications in biomimetic, wearable, and implantable systems are highlighted. KGaA, Weinheim. Astronaut physiological adaptations, muscle parameters, and cardiovascular parameters are also reviewed.
Microfluidic Devices in Advanced Caenorhabditis elegans Research. The study of model organisms is very important in view of their potential for application to human therapeutic uses. One such model organism is the nematode worm, Caenorhabditis elegans. As a nematode, C. In the past decade, many efforts have been undertaken to establish interdisciplinary research collaborations between biologists, physicists and engineers in order to develop microfluidic devices to study the biology of C.
Microfluidic devices with the power to manipulate and detect bio-samples, regents or biomolecules in micro-scale environments can well fulfill the requirement to handle worms under proper laboratory conditions, thereby significantly increasing research productivity and knowledge. The recent development of different kinds of microfluidic devices with ultra-high throughput platforms has enabled researchers to carry out worm population studies. Microfluidic devices primarily comprises of chambers, channels and valves, wherein worms can be cultured, immobilized, imaged, etc.
Microfluidic devices have been adapted to study various worm behaviors, including that deepen our understanding of neuromuscular connectivity and functions. This review will provide a clear account of the vital involvement of microfluidic devices in worm biology. Treis, J. They can cope with the challenging requirements of the XEUS Wide Field Imager and combine excellent energy resolution, high speed readout and low power consumption with the attractive feature of random accessibility of pixels.
From the evaluation of first prototypes, new concepts have been developed to overcome the minor drawbacks and problems encountered for the older devices. The production of these improved devices is currently on the way. At the same time, the development of the next generation of front-end electronics has been started, which will permit to operate the sensor devices with the readout speed required by XEUS. Here, a summary of the DEPFET capabilities, the concept of the sensors of the next generation and the new front-end electronics will be given.
Advances in nonlinear optical materials and devices. The recent progress in the application of nonlinear techniques to extend the frequency of laser sources has come from the joint progress in laser sources and in nonlinear materials. A brief summary of the progress in diode pumped solid state lasers is followed by an overview of progress in nonlinear frequency extension by harmonic generation and parametric processes.
Improved nonlinear materials including bulk crystals, quasiphasematched interactions, guided wave devices , and quantum well intersubband studies are discussed with the idea of identifying areas of future progress in nonlinear materials and devices. Over the past three years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA has initiated design, development, and testing of a new human-rated space exploration system under the Constellation Program.
Initial designs within the Constellation Program are scheduled to replace the present Space Shuttle, which is slated for retirement within the next three years. The development of vehicles for the Constellation system has encountered several unsteady aerodynamics challenges that have bearing on more traditional unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analysis. This paper focuses on the synergy between the present NASA challenges and the ongoing challenges that have historically been the subject of research and method development.
There are specific similarities in the flows required to be analyzed for the space exploration problems and those required for some of the more nonlinear unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic problems encountered on aircraft. The aggressive schedule, significant technical challenge, and high-priority status of the exploration system development is forcing engineers to implement existing tools and techniques in a design and application environment that is significantly stretching the capability of their methods.
While these methods afford the users with the ability to rapidly turn around designs and analyses, their aggressive implementation comes at a price. The relative immaturity of the techniques for specific flow problems and the inexperience with their broad application to them, particularly on manned spacecraft flight system, has resulted in the implementation of an extensive wind tunnel and flight test program to reduce uncertainty and improve the experience base in the application of these methods.
This provides a unique opportunity for unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic method developers to test and evaluate new analysis techniques on problems with high potential for acquisition of test and even flight data against which they.
The small animal conformal radiation therapy device uses an X-ray tube, a robotic animal position system, and a digital imager. The system is in a steel enclosure with adequate lead shielding following National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements 49 guidelines and verified with Geiger-Mueller survey meter. The X-ray tube is mounted on a custom-made "gantry" and has a special collimating assembly system that allows field size between 0. Three-dimensional imaging can be performed to aid target localization using the same X-ray source at custom settings and an in-house reconstruction software.
The small animal conformal radiation therapy device thus provides an excellent integrated system to promote translational research in radiation oncology in an academic laboratory. The purpose of this article is to review shielding and dosimetric measurement and highlight a few successful studies that have been performed to date with our system.
In addition, an example of new data from an in vivo rat model of breast cancer is presented in which spatially fractionated radiation alone and in combination with thermal ablation was applied and the therapeutic benefit examined. Epitaxy of advanced nanowire quantum devices. Semiconductor nanowires are ideal for realizing various low-dimensional quantum devices. In particular, topological phases of matter hosting non-Abelian quasiparticles such as anyons can emerge when a semiconductor nanowire with strong spin-orbit coupling is brought into contact with a superconductor.
To exploit the potential of non-Abelian anyons—which are key elements of topological quantum computing—fully, they need to be exchanged in a well-controlled braiding operation. Essential hardware for braiding is a network of crystalline nanowires coupled to superconducting islands. Here we demonstrate a technique for generic bottom-up synthesis of complex quantum devices with a special focus on nanowire networks with a predefined number of superconducting islands.
Structural analysis confirms the high crystalline quality of the nanowire junctions, as well as an epitaxial superconductor-semiconductor interface. In addition, a proximity-induced hard superconducting gap with vanishing sub-gap conductance is demonstrated in these hybrid superconductor-semiconductor nanowires, highlighting the successful materials development necessary for a first braiding experiment. Our approach opens up new avenues for the realization of epitaxial three-dimensional quantum architectures which have the potential to become key components of various quantum devices.
Bioinspired wingtip devices : a pathway to improve aerodynamic performance during low Reynolds number flight. Birds are highly capable and maneuverable fliers, traits not currently shared with current small unmanned aerial vehicles. They are able to achieve these flight capabilities by adapting the shape of their wings during flight in a variety of complex manners. One feature of bird wings, the primary feathers, separate to form wingtip gaps at the distal end of the wing. The nonplanar wingtip device was shown to reduce the induced drag.
Furnace devices aerodynamics optimization for fuel combustion efficiency improvement and nitrogen oxide emission reduction. Volkov, E. MPEI conducts researches on physical and mathematical models of furnace chambers for improvement of power-generation equipment fuel combustion efficiency and ecological safety.
Results of these researches are general principles of furnace aerodynamics arrangement for straight-flow burners and various fuels. It has been shown, that staged combustion arrangement with early heating and igniting with torch distribution in all furnace volume allows to obtain low carbon in fly ash and nitrogen oxide emission and also to improve boiler operation reliability with expand load adjustment range.
For solid fuel combustion efficiency improvement it is practical to use high-placed and strongly down-tilted straight-flow burners, which increases high-temperature zone residence time for fuel particles. In some cases, for this combustion scheme it is possible to avoid slag-tap removal STR combustion and to use Dry-bottom ash removal DBAR combustion with tolerable carbon in fly ash level. Final decision about overhaul of boiler unit is made with regard to physical and mathematical modeling results for furnace and zonal thermal calculations for furnace and boiler as a whole.
Overhaul of boilers to provide staged combustion and straight-flow burners and nozzles allows ensuring regulatory nitrogen oxide emission levels and corresponding best available technology criteria, which is especially relevant due to changes in Russian environmental regulation. Two-stage, low noise advanced technology fan. A two-stage research fan was tested to provide technology for designing a turbofan engine for an advanced , long range commercial transport having a cruise Mach number of 0.
The fan design tip speed was Two fan-versions were tested: a baseline configuration, and an acoustically treated configuration with a sonic inlet device. The baseline version was tested with uniform inlet flow and with tip-radial and hub-radial inlet flow distortions. The baseline fan with uniform inlet flow attained an efficiency of Tip-radial distortion increased stall margin 4 percentage points at design speed and reduced peak efficiency one percentage point.
Hub-radial distortion decreased stall margin 4 percentage points at all speeds and reduced peak efficiency at design speed 8 percentage points. At design speed, the sonic inlet in the cruise position reduced stall margin one percentage point and efficiency 1. The sonic inlet in the approach position reduced stall margin 2 percentage points. A redesign of canard control-surface of an advanced all-metallic fighter aircraft was carried out by using carbon fibre composite CFC for ribs and panels.
The redesigned CFC structure was sufficiently strong to withstand aerodynamic loads from stress and deflection points of view. Now, in the present work CFC canard structure has been studied for its buckling strength in comparison to existing metallic design.
In this study, the existing metallic design was found to be weak in buckling. Upon a detailed investigation, it was revealed that there are reported failures in the vicinity of zones where initial buckling modes are excited as predicted by the finite element based buckling analysis. In view of buckling failures, the redesigned CFC structure is sufficiently reinforced with stringers at specific locations.
After providing reinforcements against buckling, the twist and the camber variations of the airfoil are checked and compared with existing structure data. Finally, the modal analysis has been carried out to compare the variation in excitation frequency due to material change. The CFC structure thus redesigned is safe from buckling and aerodynamic aspects as well. Microscopy imaging device with advanced imaging properties.
Systems, methods and devices are implemented for microscope imaging solutions. One embodiment of the present disclosure is directed toward an epifluorescence microscope. The microscope includes an image capture circuit including an array of optical sensor. An optical arrangement is configured to direct excitation light of less than about 1 mW to a target object in a field of view of that is at least 0. The optical arrangement and array of optical sensors are each sufficiently close to the target object to provide at least 2.
The aerodynamic performance of several flow control devices for internal flow systems. An experimental reseach and development program was undertaken to develop and document new flow-control devices for use in the major modifications to the 40 by 80 Foot wind tunnel at Ames Research Center. These devices , which are applicable to other facilities as well, included grid-type and quasi-two-dimensional flow straighteners, louver panels for valving, and turning-vane cascades with net turning angles from 0 deg to 90 deg.
The tests were conducted at model scale over a Reynolds number range from 2 x , to 17 x ,, based on chord. The results showed quantitatively the performance benefits of faired, low-blockage, smooth-surface straightener systems, and the advantages of curved turning-vanes with hinge-line gaps sealed and a preferred chord-to-gap ratio between 2. A flight test program was conducted to obtain data from an upgraded Gazelle helicopter with an advanced geometry, three bladed rotor.
Data were acquired on upper and lower surface chordwise blade pressure, blade bending and torsion moments, and fuselage structural loads. Individual tranducer pressure coefficients and airfoil section lift and pitching moment coefficients are presented, as are steady state flight condition parameters and time dependence rotor loads. All dynamic data are presented as harmonic analysis coefficients.
The Ares I rocket uses roll control jets. These jets have aerodynamic implications as they impinge on the surface and protuberances of the vehicle. The jet interaction on the body can cause an amplification or a reduction of the rolling moment produced by the jet itself, either increasing the jet effectiveness or creating an adverse effect.
A design of experiments test was planned and carried out using computation fluid dynamics, and a subsequent response surface analysis ensued on the available data to characterize the jet interaction across the ascent portion of the Ares I flight envelope. Four response surface schemes were compared including a single response surface covering the entire design space, separate sector responses that did not overlap, continuously overlapping surfaces, and recursive weighted response surfaces.
These surfaces were evaluated on traditional statistical metrics as well as visual inspection. Validation of the recursive weighted response surface was performed using additionally available data at off-design point locations. Selected advanced aerodynamics and active controls technology concepts development on a derivative B The feasibility of applying wing tip extensions, winglets, and active control wing load alleviation to the Boeing is investigated.
Winglet aerodynamic design methods and high speed wind tunnel test results of winglets and of symmetrically deflected ailerons are presented. Structural resizing analyses to determine weight and aeroelastic twist increments for all the concepts and flutter model test results for the wing with winglets are included.
Future opportunities for advancing glucose test device electronics. Advancements in the field of printed electronics can be applied to the field of diabetes testing. A brief history and some new developments in printed electronics components applicable to personal test devices , including circuitry, batteries, transmission devices , displays, and sensors, are presented. Continuing research advancing substrate, "ink," and continuous processing development presents the opportunity for research collaboration with medical device designers.
Obstructive sleep apnea OSA affects approximately , people in Poland. The study group included 20 patients with OSA, all of whom did not tolerate nCPAP and did not have indications or did not agree for surgical treatment. Control polysomnography was carried out in 11 patients using MAD. Use of mandibular advancement devices is an important alternative therapy of OSA. Aerodynamic performance of conventional and advanced design labyrinth seals with solid-smooth abradable, and honeycomb lands.
Labyrinth air seal static and dynamic performance was evaluated using solid, abradable, and honeycomb lands with standard and advanced seal designs. The effects on leakage of land surface roughness, abradable land porosity, rub grooves in abradable lands, and honeycomb land cell size and depth were studied using a standard labyrinth seal. The effects of rotation on the optimum seal knife pitch were also investigated. Selected geometric and aerodynamic parameters for an advanced seal design were evaluated to derive an optimized performance configuration.
The rotational energy requirements were also measured to determine the inherent friction and pumping energy absorbed by the various seal knife and land configurations tested in order to properly assess the net seal system performance level. The goal of the experiment was to demonstrate the noise reduction potential and effect on fan model performance of the two noise reduction technologies in a scale model Ultra-High Bypass turbofan at simulated takeoff and approach aircraft flight speeds. The two novel noise reduction technologies are called Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment and Soft Vanes.
For the Over-the-Rotor acoustic treatment, two noise reduction configurations were investigated. The results showed that the two noise reduction technologies, Over-the-Rotor and Soft Vanes, were able to reduce the noise level of the fan model, but the Over-the-Rotor configurations had a significant negative impact on the fan aerodynamic performance; the loss in fan aerodynamic efficiency was between 2. Performance results with the Soft Vanes showed that there was no measurable change in the corrected fan thrust and a 1.
High-speed kph trains using magnetic forces for levitation, propulsion and control offer many advantages for the nation and a good opportunity for the aerospace community to apply 'high tech' methods to the domestic sector. There are important issues with regard to wind tunnel testing and the application of CFD to these devices. The moving track facility designed and constructed in the 6 ft.
Stability Wind Tunnel at Virginia Tech will be described. The last topic to be discussed is a Multi-disciplinary Design approach that is being applied to MAGLEV vehicle configuration design including aerodynamics , structures, manufacturability and life-cycle cost. Two stage low noise advanced technology fan.
A two-stage fan was designed to reduce noise 20 db below current requirements. The first-stage rotor has a design tip speed of The fan was designed to deliver a pressure ratio of 1. Noise reduction devices include acoustically treated casing walls, a flowpath exit acoustic splitter, a translating centerbody sonic inlet device , widely spaced blade rows, and the proper ratio of blades and vanes. Multiple-circular-arc rotor airfoils, resettable stators, split outer casings, and capability to go to close blade-row spacing are also included.
Nanostructured materials for advanced energy conversion and storage devices. New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices.
This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted. Aerodynamic optimization by simultaneously updating flow variables and design parameters with application to advanced propeller designs. A scheme is developed for solving constrained optimization problems in which the objective function and the constraint function are dependent on the solution of the nonlinear flow equations.
The scheme updates the design parameter iterative solutions and the flow variable iterative solutions simultaneously. It is applied to an advanced propeller design problem with the Euler equations used as the flow governing equations.
The scheme's accuracy, efficiency and sensitivity to the computational parameters are tested. Transonic aerodynamic design experience. Advancements have occurred in transonic numerical simulation that place aerodynamic performance design into a relatively well developed status.
Efficient broad band operating characteristics can be reliably developed at the conceptual design level. Recent aeroelastic and separated flow simulation results indicate that systematic consideration of an increased range of design problems appears promising.
Aerodynamic design and performance testing of an advanced 30 deg swept, eight bladed propeller at Mach numbers from 0. The increased emphasis on fuel conservation in the world has stimulated a series of studies of both conventional and unconventional propulsion systems for commercial aircraft. Preliminary results from these studies indicate that a fuel saving of from 15 to 28 percent may be realized by the use of an advanced high speed turboprop.
The turboprop must be capable of high efficiency at Mach 0. An advanced turboprop concept was wind tunnel tested. The aerodynamic design for the model is discussed. Test results are presented which indicate propeller net efficiencies near 80 percent were obtained at high disk loadings at Mach 0. Final report. Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation.
Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances.
Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. All rights reserved. Aerodynamic analysis of three advanced configurations using the TranAir full-potential code. Computational results are presented for three advanced configurations: the FA with wing tip missiles and under wing fuel tanks, the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, and an Advanced Turboprop research model.
These results were generated by the latest version of the TranAir full potential code, which solves for transonic flow over complex configurations. TranAir embeds a surface paneled geometry definition in a uniform rectangular flow field grid, thus avoiding the use of surface conforming grids, and decoupling the grid generation process from the definition of the configuration.
This method distributes the flow field grid points much more efficiently than the previous version of the code, which solved for a grid that was uniform everywhere in the flow field. TranAir results are presented for the three configurations and are compared with wind tunnel data. Aerodynamic performance investigation of advanced mechanical suppressor and ejector nozzle concepts for jet noise reduction.
Advanced Supersonic Transport jet noise may be reduced to Federal Air Regulation limits if recommended refinements to a recently developed ejector shroud exhaust system are successfully carried out. A two-part program consisting of a design study and a subscale model wind tunnel test effort conducted to define an acoustically treated ejector shroud exhaust system for supersonic transport application is described.
Coannular, chute, and ejector shroud exhaust systems were evaluated. Program results were used in a mission analysis study to determine aircraft takeoff gross weight to perform a nominal design mission, under Federal Aviation Regulation , Part 36, Stage 3 noise constraints. Mission trade study results confirmed that the ejector shroud was the best of the three exhaust systems studied with a significant takeoff gross weight advantage over the chute suppressor nozzle which was the second best.
Advanced adaptive computational methods for Navier-Stokes simulations in rotorcraft aerodynamics. A phase 2 research and development effort was conducted in area transonic, compressible, inviscid flows with an ultimate goal of numerically modeling complex flows inherent in advanced helicopter blade designs. The algorithms and methodologies therefore are classified as adaptive methods, which are error estimation techniques for approximating the local numerical error, and automatically refine or unrefine the mesh so as to deliver a given level of accuracy.
The result is a scheme which attempts to produce the best possible results with the least number of grid points, degrees of freedom, and operations. These types of schemes automatically locate and resolve shocks, shear layers, and other flow details to an accuracy level specified by the user of the code.
The phase 1 work involved a feasibility study of h-adaptive methods for steady viscous flows, with emphasis on accurate simulation of vortex initiation, migration, and interaction. Phase 2 effort focused on extending these algorithms and methodologies to a three-dimensional topology. Volume 1: Technical discussion. Missile aerodynamics. The fundamental aerodynamics of slender bodies is examined in the reprint edition of an introductory textbook originally published in Chapters are devoted to the formulas commonly used in missile aerodynamics ; slender-body theory at supersonic and subsonic speeds; vortices in viscid and inviscid flow; wing-body interference; downwash, sidewash, and the wake; wing-tail interference; aerodynamic controls; pressure foredrag, base drag, and skin friction; and stability derivatives.
Diagrams, graphs, tables of terms and formulas are provided. Advanced patient transfer assist device with intuitive interaction control. This research aims to improve patient transfers by developing a new type of advanced robotic assist device. It has multiple actuated degrees of freedom and a powered steerable base to maximize maneuverability around obstacles. An intuitive interface and control strategy allows the caregiver to simply push on the machine in the direction of desired patient motion.
The control integrates measurements of both force and proximity to mitigate any potential large collision forces and provides operators information about obstacles with a form of haptic feedback. Electro-hydraulic pump controlled actuation provides high force density for the actuation. Nineteen participants performed tests to compare transfer operations transferring a lb mannequin between a wheelchair, chair, bed, and floor and interaction control of a prototype device with a commercially available patient lift.
The testing included a time study of the transfer operations and subjective rating of device performance. The results show that operators perform transfer tasks significantly faster and rate performance higher using the prototype patient transfer assist device than with a current market patient lift. With further development, features of the new patient lift can help facilitate patient transfers that are safer, easier, and more efficient for caregivers.
The SCE measures by a contactless, inductive method the electrical resistivity and the diameter of a spherical levitated metallic droplet by evaluating the voltage and electrical current applied to the levitation coil. The necessity of the OSC comes from the insight that properties like surface tension or, eventually, viscosity cannot seriously be determined by the oscillating drop method in the EML facility without knowing the conditions of the surrounding atmosphere.
In the following both measurement devices are explained and laboratory test results are presented. On the basis of simulation results, the TID robustness analysis for advanced deep sub-micron technologies was accomplished up to Krad. The correlation between the impact of technology scaling and magnitude of leakage current with corresponding total dose was established utilizing Visual TCAD Genius program.
The literature on high-speed Coanda flows and its applications is reviewed. The lack of basic information for design engineers is noted. The present paper is based on an investigation of the aeroacoustics and aerodynamics of the high-speed Coanda flow that is formed when a supersonic jet issues from a radial nozzle and adheres to a tulip-shaped body of revolution.
Schlieren and other flow visualization techniques together with theoretical methods are used to reveal the various features of this complex flow field. The acoustic characteristics were obtained from measurements with an array of microphones in an anechoic chamber. The emphasis is placed on those features of the aerodynamics and aeroacoustics which may be of general interest.
Aerodynamic potpourri. Aerodynamic developments for vertical axis and horizontal axis wind turbines are given that relate to the performance and aerodynamic loading of these machines. Low-speed aerodynamic characteristics from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale advanced arrow-wing supersonic-cruise transport concept. Tests have been conducted to extend the existing low speed aerodynamic data base of advanced supersonic-cruise arrow wing configurations.
Principle configuration variables included wing leading-edge flap deflection, wing trailing-edge flap deflection, horizontal tail effectiveness, and fuselage forebody strakes. A limited investigation was also conducted to determine the low speed aerodynamic effects due to slotted training-edge flaps. Results of this investigation demonstrate that deflecting the wing leading-edge flaps downward to suppress the wing apex vortices provides improved static longitudinal stability; however, it also results in significantly reduced static directional stability.
The use of a selected fuselage forebody strakes is found to be effective in increasing the level of positive static directional stability. Drooping the fuselage nose, which is required for low-speed pilot vision, significantly improves the later-directional trim characteristics. Advanced stages of Parkinson's disease PD is a consequence of the severe neurodegenerative process and are characterized by the development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia, aggravation of non-motor symptoms.
Treatment with peroral and transdermal drugs can't provide an adequate control of PD symptoms and quality-of-life of the patients at this stage of disease. Currently, three device -aided therapies: deep brain stimulation DBS , intrajejunal infusion of duodopa, subcutaneous infusion of apomorphine can be used in treatment of patients with advanced stages of PD. Timely administration of device -aided therapies and right choice of the method determine, to a large extent, the efficacy and safety of their use.
Despite the high efficacy of all three methods with respect to the fluctuation of separate symptoms, each method has its own peculiarities. The authors reviewed the data on the expediency of using each method according to the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms, patient's age, PD duration, concomitant pathology and social support of the patients. Advanced technologies and devices for inhalational anesthetic drug dosing. Technological advances in micromechanics, optical sensing, and computing have led to innovative and reliable concepts of precise dosing and sensing of modern volatile anesthetics.
Mixing of saturated desflurane flow with fresh gas flow FGF requires differential pressure sensing between the two circuits for precise delivery. The medical gas xenon is administered most economically in a closed circuit breathing system. Sensing of xenon in the breathing system is achieved with miniaturized and unique gas detector systems.
Innovative sensing principles such as thermal conductivity and sound velocity are applied. The combination of direct injection of volatile anesthetics and low-flow in a closed circuit system requires simultaneous sensing of the inhaled and exhaled gas concentrations. When anesthetic conserving devices are used for sedation with volatile anesthetics, regular gas concentration monitoring is advised. High minimal alveolar concentration MAC of some anesthetics and low-flow conditions bear the risk of hypoxic gas delivery.
Oxygen sensing based on paramagnetic thermal transduction has become the choice when long lifetime and one-time calibration are required. Compact design of beam splitters, infrared filters, and detectors have led to multiple spectra detector systems that fit in thimble-sized housings. Response times of less than ms allow systems to distinguish inhaled from exhaled gas concentrations.
The compact gas detector systems are a prerequisite to provide "quantitative anesthesia" in closed circuit feedback-controlled breathing systems. Advanced anesthesia devices in closed circuit mode employ multiple feedback systems. Multiple feedbacks include controls of volume, concentrations of anesthetics, and concentration of oxygen with a corresponding safety system.
In the ideal case, the feedback system delivers precisely what the patient is consuming. In this chapter, we introduce advanced technologies and device concepts for delivering. Recent advances in conjugated polymers for light emitting devices. A recent advance in the field of light emitting polymers has been the discovery of electroluminescent conjugated polymers, that is, kind of fluorescent polymers that emit light when excited by the flow of an electric current.
These new generation fluorescent materials may now challenge the domination by inorganic semiconductor materials of the commercial market in light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes LED and polymer laser devices. This review provides information on unique properties of conjugated polymers and how they have been optimized to generate these properties.
The review is organized in three sections focusing on the major advances in light emitting materials, recent literature survey and understanding the desirable properties as well as modern solid state lighting and displays. Recently, developed conjugated polymers are also functioning as roll-up displays for computers and mobile phones, flexible solar panels for power portable equipment as well as organic light emitting diodes in displays, in which television screens, luminous traffic, information signs, and light-emitting wallpaper in homes are also expected to broaden the use of conjugated polymers as light emitting polymers.
The purpose of this review paper is to examine conjugated polymers in light emitting diodes LEDs in addition to organic solid state laser. Furthermore, since conjugated polymers have been approved as light-emitting organic materials similar to inorganic semiconductors, it is clear to motivate these organic light-emitting devices OLEDs and organic lasers for modern lighting in terms of energy saving ability.
In addition, future aspects of conjugated polymers in LEDs were also highlighted in this review. PubMed Central. Details of the fan geometry, the computational fluid dynamics methods, the computational grids, and various computational parameters relevant to the numerical simulations are discussed.
Flow field results for three of the five operating conditions simulated are presented in order to provide a representative look at the computed solutions. Each of the five fan aerodynamic simulations involved the entire fan system, excluding a long core duct section downstream of the core inlet guide vane. As a result, only fan rotational speed and system bypass ratio, set by specifying static pressure downstream of the core inlet guide vane row, were adjusted in order to set the fan operating point, leading to operating points that lie on a fan operating line and making mass flow rate a fully dependent parameter.
The resulting mass flow rates are in good agreement with measurement values. The computed blade row flow fields for all five fan operating points are, in general, aerodynamically healthy. Rotor blade and fan exit guide vane flow characteristics are good, including incidence and deviation angles, chordwise static pressure distributions, blade surface boundary layers, secondary flow structures, and blade wakes.
Examination of the computed flow fields reveals no excessive boundary layer separations or related secondary-flow problems. A few spanwise comparisons between. Advanced missile technology. A review of technology improvement areas for cruise missiles. Technology assessments in the areas of aerodynamics , propulsion, and structures and materials for cruise missile systems are discussed.
The cruise missiles considered cover the full speed, altitude, and target range. The penetrativity, range, and maneuverability of the cruise missiles are examined and evaluated for performance improvements. Payload vehicle aerodynamic reentry analysis. An approach for analyzing the dynamic behavior of a cone-cylinder payload vehicle during reentry to insure proper deployment of the parachute system and recovery of the payload is presented.
This analysis includes the study of an aerodynamic device that is useful in extending vehicle axial rotation through the maximum dynamic pressure region. Attention is given to vehicle configuration and reentry trajectory, the derivation of pitch static aerodynamics , the derivation of the pitch damping coefficient, pitching moment modeling, aerodynamic roll device modeling, and payload vehicle reentry dynamics.
It is shown that the vehicle dynamics at parachute deployment are well within the design limit of the recovery system, thus ensuring successful payload recovery. Effects of leading-edge devices on the low-speed aerodynamic characteristics of a highly-swept arrow-wing. However, the occurrence of the leading edge vortex flow may be postponed with leading edge devices. Of the devices considered, the most promising were a simple leading edge deflection of 30 deg and a leading edge slat system.
The trailing edge flap effectiveness was found to be essentially the same for the configuration employing either of these more promising leading edge devices. Analysis of the lateral directional data showed that for all of the concepts considered, deflecting leading edge downward in an attempt to postpone leading edge vortex flows, has the favorable effect of reducing the effective dihedral. Multidisciplinary Computational Aerodynamics. These wings exhibit large aspect ratio and a highly corrugated structure.
Several wind tunnel studies have shown possible advantages Flow Structure and Unsteady. Electronic sensors and circuits are often exposed to extreme temperatures in many of NASA deep space and planetary surface exploration missions. Electronics capable of operation in harsh environments would be beneficial as they simplify overall system design, relax thermal management constraints, and meet operational requirements. For example, cryogenic operation of electronic parts will improve reliability, increase energy density, and extend the operational lifetimes of space-based electronic systems.
Similarly, electronic parts that are able to withstand and operate efficiently in high temperature environments will negate the need for thermal control elements and their associated structures, thereby reducing system size and weight, enhancing its reliability, improving its efficiency, and reducing cost. Passive devices play a critical role in the design of almost all electronic circuitry. To address the needs of systems for extreme temperature operation, some of the advanced and most recently introduced commercial-off-the-shelf COTS passive devices , which included resistors and capacitors, were examined for operation under a wide temperature regime.
The types of resistors investigated included high temperature precision film, general purpose metal oxide, and wirewound. Nonlinear aerodynamic wing design. The applicability of new nonlinear theoretical techniques is demonstrated for supersonic wing design. The new technology was utilized to define outboard panels for an existing advanced tactical fighter model.
Mach 1. High aerodynamic efficiency was achieved at the design conditions. A corollary result was that only modest supersonic penalties were incurred to meet multiple aerodynamic requirements. The nonlinear potential analysis of a practical configuration arrangement correlated well with experimental data. Missile Aerodynamics. In addition to treating the component parts Lectures generally started with a review of fundamentals and paid particular attention to practical methods of estimation and design and Advanced materials and concepts for energy storage devices.
Over the last decade, technological progress and advances in the miniaturization of electronic devices have increased demands for light-weight, high-efficiency, and carbon-free energy storage devices. These energy storage devices are expected to play important roles in automobiles, the military, power plants, and consumer electronics. Two main types of electrical energy storage systems studied in this research are Li ion batteries and supercapacitors.
Several promising solid state electrolytes and supercapacitor electrode materials are investigated in this research. LLZO powders with a tetragonal structure were prepared by a sol-gel technique, then a pulsed laser annealing process was employed to convert the tetragonal powders to cubic LLZO without any loss of lithium.
The low sintering temperature prevented the loss of lithium that commonly occurs during synthesis using conventional solid state or wet chemical reactions. The second type of energy storage device studied is supercapacitors. Currently, research on supercapacitors is focused on increasing their energy densities and lowering their overall production costs by finding suitable electrode materials.
The third section of this dissertation details how carbonized woods electrodes were used as supercapacitor electrode materials. A high energy density of The high performance of the supercapacitor was discovered to originate from the hierarchical porous structures of the carbonized wood.
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