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Shaky theories can collapse while strong theories do not. The influence of CMT on scholarly work has become evident in recent years. CMT has produced or indirectly influenced research on heterogeneous topics including the public shaping of the gun debate in the US David et al. The use of metaphors by the media and media advertising is particularly relevant because when a specific structural metaphor is favoured two things occur simultaneously.
Firstly, the generalised use of that specific form of understanding promotes the salience of specific aspects of the reality while hiding others that are inconsistent with that metaphor. Secondly, alternative metaphorical conceptualisations, which often co-occur, become less normative. We will refer to such carryovers as metaphorical entailments. Such entailments are part of our conceptual system.
The entailments are essential to intuitively understanding any implication that metaphors carry within. For instance, by describing paying taxes in terms of a robbery, listeners can re-construct in their minds many entailments of the robbery schema—the good guys and the bad guys, the inherent violence, the injustice of it, and above all, it also implies a course of action i.
The power of entailments in CMT is that they do not require to be made explicit. In the example above, the consequence that taxes should not be paid is inferred without the necessity of explicitly verbalizing it. People can reach that conclusion by themselves as long as they share a common understanding of what a robbery means in our culture. Structural metaphors in advertising are effective because they are simple ways of communicating complex attributes and associations.
Such property of going undetected is pivotal in the normalisation process promoted by advertising. By drawing on gestalt formulations that people usually are familiar with, advertisers introduce new behaviours or popularise existing ones e. OSB in terms of experiences that people already understand and, because it is always the case in advertising, value as positive. The study was conducted in the context of a broader study in which all the authors took part Lopez-Gonzalez et al. Advertisements were downloaded from the official YouTube channels of 29 different betting brands.
Footnote 1 The number of advertisements per brand selected ranged from 1 to These brands were selected based on their popularity on specialised internet forums, profit rankings in the gambling trade journal iGaming Business , and their presence as sponsors, official partners, or regular advertisers in sport events. The sample comprised advertisements that met the following inclusion criteria:. This latter inclusion criterion excluded made-for-internet promotions that typically allow informal shooting or discussion-like videos including tipsters sponsoring a brand.
Also, longer advertisements were excluded because they were unlikely to have been shown on television; 6 the advertisements had to mention OSB, excluding those only addressing offline betting. Also, the electronic banners around the soccer field were analysed to make sure no betting brand being promoted was excluded from the study sample. After discussing the operational definitions regarding CMT, each author independently analysed the selected sub-sample and shared with others his understanding of what constituted a structural metaphor in OSB.
After a more nuanced agreement was reached, a second round of analysis was conducted. Once this coding method was deemed appropriate, the first author concluded the analysis of the remaining sample. CMT was applied in search for entailments that marked the transference of meaning from a source to a target domain.
As the purpose of the sample was not being representative, betting brands were not singled out in the analysis and all the advertisements were considered as a single unit of analysis in which the different structural metaphors, to be truly regarded structural as such, should emerge across a variety of betting brands and time periods. The rationale for this was to identify underlying metaphorical conceptualisations as ingrained in the OSB culture of advertising as possible, even as to go unnoticed by advertisers themselves.
A preliminary list of metaphors was identified by the first author. After closer examination, most of those metaphors were discarded based on three criteria. Firstly, despite the purpose of the sample being analytical, a more general representativeness was sought after in the metaphors selected. Thus, metaphors identified in less than one-fifth of the advertisements were excluded. Secondly, the selected metaphors needed to be structural , with a detectable source domain that systematically and consistently framed the domain of significance of sports betting.
Thirdly, the selected structural metaphors and their entailments were better positioned in connection with the ongoing research conversation regarding gambling advertising and had more far-reaching implications in terms of socially responsible gambling. These metaphors appeared as rarely as once and as frequently as 74 times. It was determined that only four of those metaphors met the inclusion criteria in the way that they could be considered common reiterative metaphorical constructions in which OSB was structurally presented in terms of another source domain.
The identified metaphors constructed the activity of betting were in terms of 1 an act of love, 2 a market, 3 a natural environment, and 4 a sport. In this section the whole mapping for each metaphor is described, followed by a discussion of the implications for understanding OSB advertising in the relation to the metaphors identified.
In the love metaphor, sports betting is understood in terms of an act of love. In this metaphor, the motivation for betting on sports transcends the mundane search for easy money or fun and is construed according to a deeper sense of meaning. Betting is neither presented as a rational form of money expenditure, nor as a frivolous consequence-free entertainment.
Instead, the love domain conveys the notion that betting is rooted deeper in the relationship between sport and fans. The core concept of Betting is Loving is that placing a bet on your team is equivalent to showing your love for whatever that team represents: a city, a nation, or simply the game of football as a whole. Complementarily, betting against an enemy hate - betting could also be interpreted as an act of love and loyalty.
A quintessential example of this is the encouragement of Scottish soccer fans Scotland having not qualified for the Euro soccer tournament to bet against England in the tournament. Betting can be conceived then as supporting or backing the preferred team. An entailment derived from understanding betting in terms of loving is the implication of what bettors can expect to gain from betting.
A reciprocal act of love finds love in return whereas non-corresponding love ends up empty handed. Similarly, the characterisation of teams or athletes as loved ones prevents bettors from stopping betting on them, even when they are losing more than they are winning i. One of the fundamental experiences inherent to love is the sexual encounter. Inherent to sex are the attributes of immediacy, impulsivity, sensitivity, sensorial alert, as well as joy.
Some of the advertisements that make use of the love metaphor portray live betting as being an equivalent of sex, showing, for instance, what appears to be an enhanced skin conductance and accelerated heartbeat.
The tension and anticipation derived from the game is blended into the one from the bet, making it difficult to distinguish one from the other. Goal celebrations, profusely depicted in betting advertising although not always with the love metaphorical meaning, work both as figurative orgasms as well as visual manifestations of won bets which are otherwise typically hard to visually represent.
Beyond romantic love, betting can also be understood as love in terms of a friendship. True friendship and the associated camaraderie are long-lasting bonds that need to be nurtured and taken care of. By betting along with friends, such bonds are strengthened because friends live new experiences together and build a shared memory.
Also, those who know more about sports share their love within the group by offering tips that could help their friends win some money. Some advertisements depict friends encouraging each other to bet and advising them on the most probable outcomes of a game. The market metaphor is widely used by betting brands. In this metaphor, OSB is represented as a stock market wherein bets are products that bettors buy.
Furthermore, sport competitions are the real world where events happen and cause stock to change its value, and bettors try to interact with it, observing events in sports, and predicting how team performance will impact bet value. Understanding betting as a market entails that sport events are rational, well-regulated and overseen, and that the outcome of a bet is the rational result of a number of interacting variables, that with enough analysis and knowledge, can be successfully predicted.
The underlying meaning derived from the notion of market is that betting is a financial domain defined by making money or limiting the loss of it. In such portrayals, bettors can be decoded as buyers, brokers or investors, and tipsters as financial advisors.
The task of bookmakers is to serve as intermediaries between the games and the betting market, offering the best possible conditions odds, money back, guarantees, etc. As in any market economy, knowledge and analysis are essential against a competitive backdrop. Rival bettors might outsmart others, as it is in the case of advertisements promoting exchange betting. Betting platforms as shown in OSB advertisements often resemble the stereotypical image of stock market boards, with dynamic visualisation of price changes.
Some adverts include elements such as equations, statistics, or other undetermined visual elements that largely evoke the mathematical basis of OSB and an outcome based on professional skills. Animation utilizing techniques such as stop motion or frozen images help to communicate the idea of games as events that need to be paused in order to be meticulously analysed.
In-play betting according to some OSB advertising requires the same attention as the stock market as prices vary constantly. This is why some of the adverts that utilize this metaphor advise bettors to stay focused not to miss any betting opportunity that might occur during a game. In this context, the market metaphor is particularly useful to introduce a new concept: cash out.
Cashing out per se is already a metaphor extracted from the source domain of poker. When a gambler does not want to play anymore, he or she can convert the chips back into money. However, in OSB, cashing out is understood as a way to adapt to the changing cycles of the market. That fraction of a second can make all the difference. It could be all or nothing. A smaller number of advertisements also create situations wherein tips are presented in the form of insider information.
In one advert, a young photographer on his first job covering a live football game asks his fellow more expert photographers if they got any tips about photography. Their response is for him to check out some great bet offers on his mobile phone.
If betting is a market, then those closer to that market like the professionals working in the field can leak high quality information to outsiders. This mental configuration is visible in the selling proposition of some brands.
For instance, betting brands stemming from sport media capitalise on their supposed inside knowledge of the game or their long history of sport coverage. The metaphor implies the understanding of OSB in terms of a natural environment characterised by natural and simple actions conducted by animals trying to survive. In risk-laden environments like betting and nature, betting operators offer bettors tools to minimise the uncertainty and turn the environment into a safer environment.
However, natural disasters are prone to happen and not usually foreseeable. Consequently, bettors are seen as predators that compete against other predators for prey. In some adverts, prey can be interpreted to be bookmakers, to whom bettors naturally oppose and want to beat. In other advertisements, such as those promoting exchange betting, other bettors play the role of prey. Intuition is the equivalent of instinct, a natural mechanism to predict future events.
In reality, very few advertisements make explicit claims about the intuitive components of OSB. Trust me on this, guys, I have a hunch, all in! However, in general intuition is implied in a more nuanced fashion, particularly in relation to intuitive knowledge concerning sport and its potential benefit to predict sporting outcomes.
It should be noted that the sample comprised advertisements from to , and cashing out was in many cases a recently added product that needed a proper introduction for those not familiar with it. The conceptualisation of cashing out as escaping offers a sense of security to bettors, implying that bad decisions can be later corrected by simply running.
The natural environment is explicitly depicted in one series of advertisements where a deer tries to escape from a cheetah. Hunting an animal might have also some similarities with playing soccer, a situation that features footballers preying on the ball or tackling the legs of a rival.
An alternative metaphorical use of the prey versus predator metaphor would be to consider the bettor as the hunter and the bet as the prey. The metaphor of betting as a sport is probably the most enduring and transversal in OSB advertising. By using this construction, betting is understood in terms of a sport competition in which bettors become active players rather than passive observers of external events.
Given the focus of OSB is sport itself, the metaphor is both confusing and persuasive. The portrayal of sport action e. Whereas the metaphors of nature, love, or market appear to be constructed , the association of sports betting and sport feels natural and not human-mediated.
However, on the contrary, the metaphor expands the original understanding of betting as gambling on sport, and transforms it into gambling as sport. The confusion between the content of the bet and the activity of betting per se disguises the human role in the construction of the metaphor, naturalising its understanding in those terms.
The main implication of this metaphor for bettors is to see their role activated, fundamentally in two distinct forms: player and manager. Some advertisements explicitly depict bettors playing soccer, running with their mobile phones or dribbling while eating popcorn. This characterisation is not intelligible unless betting as a sport metaphor is previously shared by the target audience. If the metaphor is accepted, bettors can behave like sportspeople and actively challenge opponents.
Some advertisements play with the idea of blurring the lines between the real sport event and the bet. Both expressions appear to leave open to interpretation which game your game might be. The sports event? The game bet as it is being developed in your device?
Bets occur within the confines of a mobile screen, which is understood as the playing field of soccer. Again, if the transition from stadium to mobile device is accepted, bettors understand that games are not entirely out of their reach and that actions that have consequences on those games can be performed within the confines of the screen.
Sometimes, hands and fingers facilitate the claim that OSB is uncomplicated, with characters using their toes to bet or betting without getting the phone out of a pocket. By doing so, OSB is no longer solely a mental action that occurs inside the brain but a bodily activity that requires a physically active individual.
Another implication of betting being understood as a sport is that, as in any sport, betting can be mastered through preparation, training, and practice. Bettors become strategists that plan games, navigate the odds looking for weak spots, in the same way as scouts look for hidden talents in low profile players. Advertisements accentuate the need for being ready e. Across many of the adverts, my-team-scoring-a-goal-like celebrations can be interpreted either explicitly as such, a goal celebration, or tacitly as a celebration of a winning bet.
Often OSB narratives feature in parallel game action and characters supposedly betting on those games, with the inevitable outcome being a celebration although some adverts cut just before the outcome and only suggesting a positive result. Similarly, advertisements where risk-free types of features are introduced, regularly represent near miss bets with a football hitting a goal post or crossbar, while explaining that even in these situations bettors can recover their initial betting stake. Bettors being understood as footballers prompts the whole representation of the betting action as a professional soccer match situation.
In others, the hand movement over the screen is sometimes stop-motioned as replays are offered to appreciate the accuracy of the betting performance. All these elements help to construct the meaning of betting as a sporting activity with all the entailments already associated with elite sport. Arguably, many forms of betting do not occur in the context of cold, rational monetary decisions but are gambled in relation to personal preferences based on identity, belonging, etc.
The understanding of OSB in terms of a love act might arguably be deepening such a relationship. Advertisers could be building on the pre-existing sports-fan bonds to introduce their products as part of a love metaphor that, if not followed, bettors could interpret their own behaviour as a failure and being perceived by themselves or others as disloyal. Additionally, the love metaphor does not necessarily entail a romantic love perspective.
Male friendship has been proposed in the past as a crucial component in betting advertising narratives Gordon et al. As in the case of romantic love, this metaphor might lead to an understanding of betting as a form of friendship building, and thus discouraging the ceasing of betting.
Also, the market metaphor is far from ideologically neutral. The market metaphor provides OSB with attributes of professionalism, expertise, and business-oriented activity—attributes that smart people typically use in order to profit financially.
Such a metaphorical domain prevents advertisers from explicitly claiming the financial rationale for betting on sports, because it is tacitly inferred by bettors who accept that betting is indeed something that resembles a stock market.
Embodied in this metaphor, bettors see themselves as businesspeople who make rational decisions. One of the potential problems with the market metaphor is that it brings to the surface a traditional incoherence of betting behaviour.
Bettors appear to behave more like consumers, maximising utility obtained from the betting product e. However, betting marketing is increasingly advertising more complex and exotic bets with higher expected losses i. Arguably, the business-oriented underlying marketing strategy of bookmakers might be antithetical to the actual hedonistic purpose of most bettors.
In other words, in some instances, betting marketing could be addressing bettors as businesspeople while bettors are behaving as fans. Gambling scholars have frequently proposed normalisation as one of the main and more long-lasting effects of gambling advertising Gainsbury et al.
Normalisation is a long-term process that also includes sub-processes of legal and cultural legitimation Scott Understanding OSB in terms of a natural environment could arguably facilitate the legitimation of betting across different cultural societies.
By naturalising betting and inherently associating it with sport, future bettors might cease to consider betting as a marketing-fuelled purchase option and regard it as a natural component of sport. This is precisely how Lakoff and Johnson understood gestalts to work in metaphors, in the sense of natural kinds of experiences that go unnoticed by most people. The natural approach, additionally, might suggest the construction of gambling in terms of an inevitable innate behaviour, as old as humanity itself.
The same as instincts and sexual relationship patterns, here, gambling behaviour is part of our DNA, the cultural manifestation of a biological attribute. As such, the love and nature metaphors partially interact, forming a wider natural setting in which betting appears to be mirroring more primitive, and inescapable, behaviours. Market and nature metaphors also conflate the understanding of betting as an inevitable process that escapes individual volition. The myth of gambling as a sport has previously been hypothesised McMullan et al.
Other forms of gambling, such as poker, have also been found to try to associate their equity brand with sport attributes by means of sporting celebrity endorsements Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths a. In fact, the sport metaphor could be interpreted as a two-way road. Not only is betting being understood as a sport but, simultaneously, sport is also understood in terms of betting.
Recent research with Australian gamblers shows that sport and betting share a symbolic alignment. This poses a major challenge for policy makers. In a distant but analogous context such as football fantasy games , experiments manipulating advertisements have demonstrated that participants perceived greater control over their actions under the conditions in which more expert information and bigger customization of the platform were emphasised in the advertising narratives Kwak et al.
Fantasy sports have had a long dispute with American authorities over its characterisation as games of skill or chance Rose Although the skill versus chance dilemma might not be an issue from a legal standpoint for online sports betting Lopez-Gonzalez and Griffiths b , it might still be relevant from a perception point of view, because potential bettors might be more interested in engaging with products they perceive as active rather than passive.
In addition to identifying a number of narrative metaphors, the present study also observed an absence of traditional gambling advertising narratives. For instance, the dream metaphor, whereby the probability of winning is enhanced by framing the gambling experience as a dream where anything can happen, has traditionally been used in advertising Binde ; Sklar and Derevensky , but was not identified in the studied sample of adverts in the present study.
One interpretation could be that modern OSB advertising does not focus on gambles where the probability is minimal but whose prize is life-changing. In such narratives, the dream metaphor is essential to sell hope for an unlikely event. Conversely, dream metaphors are arguably a poor fit for OSB for two reasons.
First, winning on a bet placed is not a rare occurrence. Even problem gamblers win frequently. Second, dreaming is a passive action that individuals cannot control, and therefore it adds little to the construction of betting as an active and potentially skilful activity. The present paper has argued that below the most visible framework of online sports betting advertising messages lie metaphors that structure the understanding of betting.
The multiplicity of forms that OSB advertising adopts accentuates the need for a platform-neutral approach that analyses how betting activity is constructed in different settings. In this regard, CMT has helped to identify four underlying metaphors i.
Gambling companies have a social responsibility in the construction and dissemination of particular ways of understanding sports betting, as well as in the discouragement of alternative forms. It is relevant to understand the way advertising messages might promote specific metaphors for individuals to make sense of a widely accepted activity such as gambling on sport events. In this sense, more research is needed to evaluate how gamblers indeed perceive those messages, and whether they conceptualise betting in their minds the way advertising is envisioned.
Adu-Ampong, E. A metaphor analysis research agenda for tourism studies. Annals of Tourism Research, 57, — Enhanced typesetting. See all details. Next page. Fearless and inspiring. Discover Black voices on Audible. Learn more. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1.
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Sports Betting For Dummies. Swain Scheps. Register a free business account. Matt captured it perfectly in a quick read that I enjoyed. Matt Rudnitsky is one of the only national sportswriters who acknowledges that people bet on sports. He even bets on them himself!
With mild success. Customer reviews. How are ratings calculated? Instead, our system considers things like how recent a review is and if the reviewer bought the item on Amazon. It also analyzes reviews to verify trustworthiness. Top reviews Most recent Top reviews. Top reviews from the United States. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. Verified Purchase. This introductory level book explains the various bets you can make, and does a good job explaining why most bettors lose in the long run, identifying countless fallacies relied on by losing bettors.
The author also identifies various metrics that can be used to evaluate teams. Unfortunately this portion is not well organized and reads like a stream of consciousness. Still, there are a few good things to think about which most winning better already consider. It would have been nice to see a method to put all these different ideas together into one opinion on a game.
I've read numerous of books on sports betting, and this was one of my favorites. Notably, his "commandments" for recreational sports bettors are a great set of simple rules to remember and his discussion of common cognitive biases were helpful in understanding the psychological aspects of sports betting.
He also sprinkles in a some humor, which makes for a good read. Finally, he provides his email address and offers to provide readers help at certain points in the book. Sure enough, I reached out to him with an inquiry and he got back to me.
As a recreational sports gambler I enjoyed this book. The author makes it pretty clear that beating a sportsbook is very difficult, but also acknowledges that you can win over the long-term with some discipline and intelligent analysis. The book is filled with tons of methods to improve your sports betting skill. I especially liked the "17 Commandments of Sports Betting". Reading the book alone won't get you rich, but employing the ideas in the book and doing some additional work could certainly help anybody's chances of winning.
Very useful information in this book. A ton of information for the beginning sports bettor me. I have learned a ton. Links in the book provide additional information, although a couple of the links are not working. All in all a good book. I've learned some good stuff that hopefully I will apply. With sports betting now allowed in Mississippi this is exactly what I needed to get started Good quick read I bought this for my dad for Christmas.
I went to visit him 2 days after I gave him the book and he was already done reading it. He said there was great tips and advise and he was happy with it. This book was very helpful for me. Many solid practical tips on how to be a smarter sports bettor. Like probably many other people, I "know" sports, but am frustrated that I don't do better a sports wagering. This book does a good job explaining the things you need to know about the mechanics of sports betting to have a better chance of succeeding.
Also, I emailed the author a question and he replied This book was great and is filled with many helpful tips.
Both Merson and the Poisson-process model and me!!! All in the same weekend!!! Before you clone my Github repo and raise capital for your sports hedge fund, I should make it clear that there are no guarantees. If anything, this article is a toy example of what you could potentially do.
But the bookmakers have made it extremely difficult for anyone to gain sustainable profits. If there are still a lot of people placing a bet at 4. Chances are that by the time the code infers the most optimal odds, it has been changed.
Furthermore, if you do start to make a regular profit, bookmakers can simply thank you for your business, pay out your winnings and cancel your account. This is what has happened to a research group from the University of Tokyo . A few months after we began to place bets with actual money bookmakers started to severely limit our accounts. If you enjoy this article, you may also enjoy my other article about interesting statistical facts and rules of thumbs.
For other deep dive analyses:. The entire code for this project can be found on my Github profile. Bell System Technical Journal. Hands-on real-world examples, research, tutorials, and cutting-edge techniques delivered Monday to Thursday. Make learning your daily ritual. Take a look. Get started. Open in app. Sign in. Editors' Picks Features Explore Contribute.
Tuan Nguyen Doan. The algorithm against an expert One of the difficulties of testing an algorithm is to find a good benchmark for its performance. Neither is it a recommendation to bet or gamble. Please be aware that sports betting is not legal in several states in the USA.
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