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One of the first HTS studies directly relevant to domestic animals was a technical tour de force which pushed the time frame for retrieval of aDNA and reconstruction of paleogenomes beyond kya to the early stages of the Middle Pleistocene [ ]. In this study, Ludovic Orlando and colleagues were able to generate a 1.

They also showed that the demographic history of the horse has been profoundly impacted by climate history, particularly during warmer periods such as the interval after the LGM Fig. Finally, by focusing on genomic regions exhibiting unusual patterns of derived mutations in domestic horses, it was possible to tentatively identify genes that may have been subject to human-mediated selection during and after domestication [ ].

The origins of the domestic dog C. Again, like the Thistle Creek horse bone, a small number of key subfossil specimens have provided critical paleogenomic evidence concerning the evolutionary origins of domestic dogs and their genetic relationships with Late Pleistocene Eurasian wolf populations [ 10 , 11 , ]. Analysis of this Taimyr specimen with WGS data from modern canids showed that this ancient wolf belonged to a population that was genetically close to the ancestor of modern gray wolves and dogs.

The results supported a scenario whereby the ancestors of domestic dogs diverged from wolves by 27 kya, with domestication happening at some point subsequent to that event. In addition, this study provided compelling evidence that high-latitude dog breeds such as the Siberian Husky trace some of their ancestry back to the extinct wolf population represented by the Taimyr animal [ ]. Analyses of the ancient Newgrange dog genome, additional mtDNA genomes from ancient European dogs and modern wolf and dog genome-wide SNP data suggested that dogs were domesticated independently in the Late Pleistocene from distinct East and West Eurasian wolf populations and that East Eurasian dogs, migrating alongside humans at some time between 6.

Comparison of these two ancient dog genomes with almost modern canid whole genomes and a large genome-wide SNP data set of modern dogs and wolves did not support the dual domestication hypothesis proposed by Frantz et al. The origins and fate of the domestic dog populations of the Americas prior to contact with European and African peoples has been the subject of a recent paleogenomics study involving comparisons of ancient and modern dogs. Comparative population genomics analyses of these data demonstrated that the first American domestic dogs did not trace their ancestry to American wolves.

Instead, however, these pre-contact American dogs PCDs represent a distinct lineage that migrated from northeast Asia across the Beringian Steppe with humans more than 10 kya [ ]. In a similar fashion to the post-contact human demographic transition in the Americas [ , ], the authors hypothesize that infectious disease likely played a major role in the replacement of PCDs by European dogs. Finally, they also show that the genome of the canine transmissible venereal tumor CTVT cancer lineage, which has evolved to become an obligate conspecific asexual parasite [ ], is the closest genomic relative of the first American dogs.

As has been previously noted, understanding the origins and early domestic history of dogs has been complicated by population bottlenecks, expansions, local extinctions and replacements and geographically localized gene flow among wolves and dogs and genetically distinct dog populations [ 8 ].

It will, therefore, require systematic large-scale retrieval and analysis of ancient wolf and dog genomes across space and time to accurately reconstruct the evolutionary history of the first animal domesticate [ ]. However, this and similar undertakings for other domestic species will be greatly facilitated by another recent technical breakthrough that is described below. In , a team of Irish geneticists and archaeologists showed that the petrous portion of the temporal bone—the densest bone in the mammalian skeleton—produced the highest yields of endogenous DNA; in some cases, up to fold higher than other skeletal elements [ ].

Previously, for the most part, aDNA research has been confined to regions of the globe where climate and topography were conducive to taphonomic preservation of skeletal DNA Fig. However, in recent years human paleogenomics studies have been successfully conducted using samples from arid, subtropical and even tropical zones [ , , , , , , , , , , , ]. Geography of archaeological DNA survival prior to the discovery of high endogenous DNA content in the mammalian petrous bone.

This has led to a marked increase in the number of sequenced paleogenomes from domestic animals and their progenitors and congeners Fig. Stacked bar chart and line graph showing the number of ancient samples with whole-genome sequence data paleogenomes from domesticated species and their wild relatives. Each genus is represented by a different color and the line indicates the total number of paleogenomes generated.

The graph was produced in R using ggplot2 data from [ 10 , 11 , 69 , , , , , , , , , , ]. Kevin Daly and colleagues were able to generate genome-wide sequence data from four pre-domestic goats bezoars— Capra aegagrus and 47 domestic goats C. The diversity of bezoar and goat mtDNA and nuclear genomes across Southeastern Europe and the Near East supports the hypothesis that goat domestication in the Near East took place over an extended period of time and in a spatially dispersed manner, which is contrary to a simplified Vavilovian model of a single core domestication zone with radial dispersal of early domesticates.

These observations mirror paleogenomics data from early Neolithic farmers, which also show discontinuous genomic diversity across the region [ , , , ]. From a functional population genomics perspective, detection of outlier genomic loci exhibiting signatures of selective sweeps identified several plausible candidate genes that may have undergone rapid microevolution during and soon after goat domestication.

Early human-mediated selection at these loci may have been to facilitate visual recognition of individual animals, or as a pleiotropic consequence of breeding for behavioral traits such as tameness see the following section. In addition to pigmentation and other signals associated with growth and reproduction, Daly and colleagues identified an intriguing selection signature centered on the caprine ortholog of the human cytochrome P, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19 gene CYP2C19 , which has been implicated in metabolism of a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium spp.

They hypothesized, therefore, that a caprine CYP2C19 variant that protects against this toxin would have been under positive selection in response to a diet containing increasing amounts of cereal waste byproducts [ ]. Additional high-resolution population-level studies of domestic and wild paleogenomes have recently been published that illustrate the power of this approach in providing new insight on the origins, biogeography and functional biology of mammalian livestock [ , , ].

A notable outcome from this work is strong support for the hypothesis that the advent of agricultural mechanization and motorized transport led to a marked decrease in genomic diversity of modern horses compared to populations that existed prior to the Industrial Revolution. Examining patterns of genomic variation further back in time also revealed that the influence of Persian-derived lineages increased following the expansions of Islamic cultures in the second half of the first millennium CE.

In addition, evaluation of positive selection using population branch statistics showed that by the second millennium CE there was evidence for significant changes in genes regulating skeletal development and anatomy. Finally, this study uncovered two additional horse lineages that existed during the fifth millennium BCE at the northeastern and southwestern extremities of Eurasia, but which became extinct with minimal genetic contributions to modern domestic horses.

A similarly in-depth study of domestic and wild paleogenomes but with a geographical focus on the Fertile Crescent and surrounding regions has also shed new light on the domestic origins and spread of cattle during the Neolithic period and in subsequent millennia [ ]. Using WGS data from 67 ancient cattle, including six aurochs B.

They showed that there was significant male-mediated gene flow from arid-adapted zebu cattle B. In addition, analyses of WGS data from ancient domestic cattle that inhabited the southern Levant and a Moroccan aurochs specimen dated to approximately 9 kya demonstrated that a distinct subpopulation of aurochs ranged across the Levant and the North African littoral. This led the authors to hypothesize that the previously recognized genetic distinctiveness of African B.

Laurent Frantz and his colleagues have recently published the first comprehensive population paleogenomics study of wild and domestic pigs in the Near East and Europe [ ]. Using 63 nuclear paleogenome data sets in conjunction with mtDNA sequences from more than modern and ancient animals, they were able to reconstruct a detailed genetic history for S. The most notable outcome from this work was confirmation that the domestic pig populations that have inhabited mainland Europe for approximately 8 kya have undergone a complete genomic turnover via gene flow from indigenous wild boars that was particularly rapid during the centuries after first contact.

This process had been suggested by earlier studies of modern and ancient mtDNA [ 63 ] and by medium-density SNP array data from European and Near Eastern wild boar and three European domestic pig populations [ ]. However, it required the extensive paleogenomics data generated by Frantz et al. The functional impact of wild boar introgression was also assessed through comparative analyses of haplotypes previously reported to have been subject to human-mediated selection [ 24 ].

These analyses demonstrated that the small proportion of retained Near Eastern genomic ancestry in modern European pigs has not been specifically targeted by selective breeding. One exception to this general trend, however, may be the DN variant of the melanocortin 1 receptor protein encoded by MC1R associated with black or black and white spotted pigmentation in many western Eurasian domestic pig breeds.

This non-camouflage coat-color phenotype has been maintained in the face of substantial gene flow from wild boar and phylogenetic analyses of the genomic region surrounding MC1R led Frantz and colleagues to hypothesize an origin for the DN variant in Anatolian domestic pigs more than 8 kya [ ].

The vanguard of high-resolution surveys of livestock paleogenomes described in the previous section signpost the future of archaeogenetics in domestic animals. They point towards high-resolution studies across time and space that will reveal the genetic architecture of animal domestication and the physiological and neurobiological changes that occur as livestock and companion animals are brought under human control and subject to long-term reproductive management and artificial selection.

Because of his interest in human-mediated breeding and selection, Darwin had spent many years studying behavioral, physiological and morphological traits in domestic animals. He observed that the diverse range of domesticated mammals—rodents, lagomorphs, carnivores, artiodactyls and perissodactyls—exhibit a shared collection of developmental, anatomical, physiological and behavioral traits that set them apart from wild mammals.

The neural crest hypothesis proposes that traits associated with the domestication syndrome have a shared developmental basis. This is due to the role of stem cells from the crest or dorsal edge of the neural tube of vertebrate embryos, which ultimately form or influence a range of anatomical features, and neurobiological and physiological processes [ ].

The neural crest hypothesis has recently been supported by comparative studies of whole-genome sequence and SNP data from domestic dogs, cats and foxes Vulpes vulpes and their wild counterparts [ , , , ]. These studies demonstrated that some of the genes in these species that exhibit signatures of selection due to domestication are embedded in the GRNs that determine the fate of neural crest cells during early embryonic development. To date, only one in-depth paleogenomics study has provided convincing evidence in support of the neural crest hypothesis.

Pablo Librado and colleagues examined a series of 14 Central Asian domestic horse paleogenomes spanning the Bronze and Iron Ages between 4. They applied a novel statistical method based on levels of exclusively shared differences LSD for genome-wide selection scans that can identify loci that underwent selection in a population with high sensitivity and specificity [ ]. Genes detected as enriched by this approach included genes related to ear shape, neural crest cell morphology, neural mesenchyme and neural crest-derived neurons involved with movement, learning and reward [ ].

In the coming years, it is likely that high-resolution surveys of paleogenomes across time and space in other species will shed further light on the role of neural crest cell GRN perturbation in animal domestication. It should also be possible to determine if this process is universal across mammalian livestock and companion animals, and whether it also extends to other domestic vertebrates such as birds and fish [ ].

Based on progress during the past decade, paleogenomics combined with comparative evolutionary genomics will provide a deeper understanding of the genetic architecture, neurobiology and physiology of mammalian domestication [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 ].

Unsurprisingly, the original idea that modern humans are self-domesticated can also be attributed to Charles Darwin; however, he remained equivocal as to whether the unusual biology of our species could really be associated with the same processes that gave rise to domestic animals [ ]. Recently, however, as the field of domestication studies has advanced, the hypothesis of human self-domestication is increasingly being revisited—particularly with regards to the evolution of prosociality and language [ , , , , , ].

The rapid accumulation of paleogenomes from early domestic animals, and anatomically modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans, would therefore suggest that the self-domestication hypothesis can finally be rigorously tested and assessed using high-resolution comparative genomics.

Prior to the genomics era, theoretical population genetics models predicted domestication and artificial selection would lead to accumulation of deleterious alleles and an increase in the genetic load through genetic hitchhiking [ ], population bottlenecks that negatively affect purifying selection [ ] and reductions in locus-specific effective population size [ ].

In recent years, comparisons of genome sequence data from domestic dogs, yaks Bos grunniens , rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus and chickens with their wild congeners have supported the cost of domestication hypothesis [ , , ].

Again, equine studies have led the way in investigating the cost of domestication using paleogenomics data. Mikkel Schubert and colleagues compared two ancient pre-domestic Asian horse genomes sequenced to relatively high coverage 7. They observed significantly increased deleterious mutation loads in the extant genomes that could not simply be attributed to increased rates of inbreeding in present-day horse populations [ ].

It is important to note, however, that more extensive tracking of genomic variation across time has shown that the mutational load in modern horses has accumulated relatively recently, presumably because of selective breeding practices that have become increasingly sophisticated over the centuries [ , , ].

Notwithstanding the general pattern observed for other species, European pigs seem to have escaped the genetic load imposed by domestication and artificial selection through long-term gene flow from wild boar and more recent admixture with East Asian pig populations [ ].

This leads us to the next important contribution of paleogenomics to understanding the origins and genetic history of domestic animals. Comparative analyses of these paleogenomes provided surprising but convincing evidence of reticulate gene flow and admixture between these archaic groups and anatomically modern humans during the Late Pleistocene [ , ]. Additional Neanderthal and Denisovan genome sequence data have been assembled over the past decade, some of which are at sufficiently high depth for functional population genomics investigations of adaptive and maladaptive introgression into modern human populations for reviews see [ , , , , , ].

It is now well established that people outside of sub-Saharan Africa exhibit varying but consistently detectable genomic signatures of admixture with these archaic hominins [ 82 , , , , , , ]. In addition, introgression of Neanderthal and Denisovan protein-coding gene segments and genomic regulatory elements GREs has had functional consequences, the textbook example being positive selection of a Denisovan haplotype of the endothelial PAS domain protein 1 gene EPAS1 for altitude adaptation in Tibetan human populations [ ].

In a comparable fashion to studies of modern and archaic humans, high-resolution population genomics and paleogenomics have begun to demonstrate that the evolutionary origins and genetic history of domestic animals are generally more complex and scientifically intriguing than the relatively simplistic scenarios originally posited using small numbers of uniparental genetic markers and autosomal polymorphisms [ 8 , 25 , 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , ].

An early and instructive example derives from relatively comprehensive surveys of a single uniparental marker mtDNA in extant cattle populations [ , , ]. This work clearly demonstrated the substantial evolutionary divergence between B. However, the early focus on mtDNA meant that detecting and disentangling sex-biased hybridization and extensive zebu—taurine admixture in African and Middle Eastern cattle populations only became possible with the availability of both modern and ancient nuclear genetic marker data [ , , , , ].

In this regard, the estimated evolutionary divergence between the B. For example, mitonuclear interactions with biochemical and physiological impacts, which can be examined at high resolution in hybrid African cattle Fig.

Taurine—zebu admixture and genomic introgression in hybrid African cattle. Nuclear oxidative phosphorylation OXPHOS genes are highlighted, illustrating the potential of admixed cattle for evaluating mitonuclear disequilibria. The plot was generated using the efficient local ancestry inference ELAI method [ ]. The problems associated with overreliance on mtDNA sequence diversity data are also encapsulated in one of the first aDNA studies of ancient wild cattle, which concluded that native European aurochs B.

However, it was only when WGS data became available from a pre-domestic northern European aurochs that a more nuanced scenario of localized gene flow became apparent [ 69 , ]. In our opinion, therefore, once paleogenomic data are assembled for wild and early domestic cattle across Eurasia, this pattern will crystallize into a spatio-temporal mosaic of reticulate aurochs admixture and introgression that may have profound consequences for understanding phenotypic diversity in modern cattle populations.

For example, the recent work of Verdugo and colleagues described above that encompassed analyses of cattle paleogenomes from the Fertile Crescent and surrounding areas revealed an intricate pattern of admixture and introgression over time [ ]. Reticulate evolution in European wild aurochs and domestic cattle. Complex reticulate evolutionary histories have come into focus for other domestic animals and wild congeners during the past decade—over both long and short evolutionary timescales [ 10 , 24 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ].

In a remarkable example of convergent adaptive introgression—mirroring ancient genetic exchange between Denisovans and humans—a canine EPAS1 variant from altitude-adapted gray wolves has been selected in mastiff dogs that have inhabited the Tibetan Plateau for hundreds of years [ , ]. Domestic pigs, wild boar and other suid species also have a highly complex reticulate and multilayered history of intraspecific and interspecific admixture [ , ].

In the first instance, genome sequence data have provided convincing evidence for ancient admixture and gene flow over a relatively long timescale among S. Secondly, two separately domesticated major west and east Eurasian lineages of domestic pigs share a common ancestor more than 1 mya [ , , ] and have been subject to extensive human-mediated crossbreeding to enhance traits of commercial interest, particularly in northern European production pig breeds [ , , , , , ].

Thirdly, since the early Neolithic, the genetic composition of pig populations across Eurasia has been profoundly influenced by recurrent gene flow from wild boar [ 24 , 63 , , , , , , ]. In particular, analyses of aDNA from archaeological material have shown that there was mtDNA turnover with wild boar as early domestic pigs migrated into Europe during the Neolithic [ 63 , , ].

Finally, an additional layer of complexity became evident with detection of back migration and introgression of European mtDNA haplotypes into Bronze and Iron Age Middle Eastern domestic pig populations [ , , , ]. It is important to note, however, that the complex genetic history and biogeography of domestic pigs during the Holocene will only become understood with detailed spatio-temporal paleogenomics data from across Eurasia and beyond. In this regard, the recent study by Frantz and colleagues described above is an important first step towards this goal [ ].

During the past decade progress in archaeogenetics has been driven by spectacular technology developments in genomics and other fields. There have also been significant developments in other areas of biomolecular archaeology, some of which we outline below in the context of understanding the genetic history and recent evolution of domestic animals.

Ancient DNA may also be readily extracted from a wide range of museum specimens containing biological material from domestic animals [ , , ]. However, it is important that minimally or non-destructive sampling methods are employed for these items, many of which are literally irreplaceable [ , ]. Novel sources of aDNA such as avian eggshells and feathers [ ], animal glues [ ] and parchment made from processed livestock skins [ , ] will likely have a major impact on archaeogenetics studies of domestic animals.

Written documents made from parchment have been carefully maintained and curated for many centuries and therefore represent a valuable repository of genomic information that could illuminate livestock agriculture, breeding and trade stretching back to the early Middle Ages [ ].

Another major area of growth during the coming decade will be identifying and analyzing microbial pathogen genomes using archaeological material from domestic animals and wild congeners [ , ]. This approach will provide new information for infectious disease research in livestock and companion animals, particularly for diseases such as bovine tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis , which may have emerged as livestock population densities increased during the Neolithic period [ ].

The introduction of aDNA and particularly paleogenomics to archaeology has not been universally welcomed [ ]. Accordingly, this multidisciplinary approach would fully encompass existing scholarship on human history and prehistory, thereby facilitating accurate interpretations of paleogenomics data from ancient peoples and their animal companions [ , , ].

It is important to finish this review by emphasizing that there will be myriad practical applications for systematically exploring and cataloguing domestic animal genome diversity using high resolution population genomics of extant and extinct domestic animal populations and their wild ancestors. For example, the Functional Annotation of Animal Genomes FAANG initiative that aims to identify all functional elements in animal genomes [ ] will directly benefit from understanding how genomic regulatory networks have been shaped by domestication, migration and adaptive introgression from wild populations, as well as ancient and more recent human-mediated selection.

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Most large, natural shifts in CO 2 concentration have occurred over tens to hundreds of thousands of years or longer. This current rate of warming would be times faster than the natural warming rate after ice ages. To use an analogy: m ost species may have been able to float through the shallow waves of natural climate variation, but they are not ready for the tsunami of rapid climate change to come. More recently, this transformation was kicked into high gear with the Industrial Revolution of the late s.

Great swathes of temperate forest in Europe, Asia and North America have been cleared over the past few centuries for agriculture, timber, and urban development. Tropical forests in South America and Africa are now on the front line. Human-assisted species invasions of pests, competitors, and predators are rising exponentially, and overexploitation of fisheries and forest animals for meat have already driven many species to the point of collapse.

The ways plants and animals adapt to changes in their environment have also been severely hampered. In order for many species to migrate large distances — one of the main ways animals adapt to climatic shifts — they would have to cross large areas of human influence. Mass migration in areas of large human population — entwined with crisscrossing, high-speed highways and polluted, dammed-up rivers — is a challenging task.

Along with this, it has been shown that climate change has already had an impact on the environmental cues that animals use to determine the timing and navigation of their migratory patterns. There is much evidence that we are already on the brink of a sixth mass extinction event.

Because of human activity, the number of species on the planet is already decreasing. Because mass extinction events take place over a long time period compared to human life spans, this evidence alone is not enough to definitely conclude the occurrence of such an event. If we fail to prevent catastrophic climate change, there will be many regions of the world some of which are highly populated which will become uninhabitable to even us humans. This is based on human physiology and future temperature and humidity predictions under climate change.

Extended periods of these high wet bulb temperatures increase the rate of heat stroke and death in humans. Here in the U. When we zoom out to the entire globe, it gets worse, specifically in tropical regions. Billions of people live in these potential, future hot zones. Due to the current state of the global economy, many disadvantaged people residing in these potentially deadly places may not be able to move away or adapt.

We know that most mass extinctions in the fossil record have been triggered by the rapid onset of global warming due to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. In the past, these emissions were usually due to large, volcanic episodes which occurred over tens to hundreds of thousands of years.

On a geological timescale, these changes occurred in the blink of an eye, and this is why they were so costly. The human-caused climate change that is occurring today is similar; since , we have increased atmospheric CO 2 levels to the highest they have been in the last 3 to 5 million years. Even though this may be depressing, there is still hope. There is still time to reverse the worst effects of man-made climate change, and to do so we must support conservationist efforts and transition to renewable energy.

Last updated on 13 November by fhaychap. View Archives. So, yes, the last glacial retreat was a good thing for the development of agriculture. But your contention that this development took place during a time of rapidly rising temperatures and sea levels is not well supported -- and really makes no difference.

However, there is a clear difference in conditions described by Bettinger et al : Ice age climates varied at very short timescales Richerson, Boyd, and Bettinger Ice core data show that last glacial climate was highly variable on timescales of centuries to millenia In comparison, the Holocene after 11, BP has been a period of comparatively very stable climate. So it appears to have been stability that gave birth to civilization.

What we have provoked is rapid change and instability : deeper droughts, worse flooding, wilder extremes from winter to summer. Anecdotally, from a recent trip west: it is clear that the only people who will get a crop this year are those who can afford to buy lots of water. Poor farmers have abandoned their fields; buildings and other infrastructure are in decay.

Everywhere you go, creekbeds and streams are dry and people are saying 'it's never been this bad. In the same light, the change in climate is putting pressure on "friendly" and "neutral" species, as well as a strong increase is invasive and pest species, which does not bode well for our species even in the short term.

It certainly doesn't bode well in terms of comfort - longer term, it won't sit well for meeting the basic needs of all of society as species relied upon for necessities are pushed out by species regarded as pests. Mikemcc at AM on 22 December, The link to Univ of Texas climate change impact article marked by the text "timing of breeding, migration, flowering, and so on" is broken.

It looks like they've moved the article. So why should I believe anything else you tell me if you so egregioulsy misrepresent such easily available "facts"? It doesn't make the claim you say it makes. It compares a potential with the "largely ice-free world" of about 35mya.

It may even be the one you are referring to! That reconstruction indeed shows that there are deep ocean temps in the Eocene era that were substantially greater than today, but those were 55 million years ago. It also shows that the last time temps were consistently 4C higher than current was just prior to the Antarctic glaciation 34 mya.

There may have some periods that were a touch more than 4C warmer in the following 10 million years, but that was still 24 million years ago. The point of this post is that we are likely to recapitule tens of millions of years of climate history in the span of a century or two. If you have a reconstruction that says otherwise, link to it. Otherwise we have no idea what you're specifically talking about, and it is therefore impossible to clarify things. The most relevant, prominent image was this one originally from wikipedia :.

The data is from dO18 from foraminafora shells on the ocean floor. Consequently dO18 records do not linearly equate to temperature records between different periods with very different ratios of fresh to salt water, as when large quantities of ice are locked up in ice sheets.

Hence the two different temperature scales. Indeed, it shows the data in the image above, first in an unmodified form and then adjusted for the size of ice sheets to give a direct temperature measurement Fig 3 b :. As you can see, temperatures did not consistently exceed 4 C above mid-twentieth century values until 35 million years ago.

Finally, I did see two images that showed temperatures in the 20 degree range. One showed central european temperatures only, and hence was not representative of global temperatures. The second was the crude graph by Scotese which is in its original form , not proxy based, but merely assigns a warm temperature for periods without glaciation, and a cool temperature for periods with extensive glaciation.

It also showed global average temperatures rather than the global temperature anomaly, and therefore showed at most a 7 C increase over modern temperatures at any time in the tertiary. I do not know what figure Scott Sinnock was basing his claims on, but they are not warranted by the limited evidence he provides. We are 14 years into the 21st century. What is the global temp increase from till now? We are not on track 14 years into the 21st century.

I question that the Earth's crust, atmosphere, and oceans as a heat sink could allow that much change in years. I tried to see the annual fluctuation in Lake superior water temps but they only record surface temps, when avg depth is Adapting has so far been to. A house in Jupiter, Fla at The recent trend along Fla coast will bring sea water to the Jupiter Fla house doorstep in years, assuming no changes in continental plate rise or fall over years. At least Polar Bear adaptation is being relieved so far this year.

Please cease and desist posting coments of this nature. The latest SIA is Also, unlike Yogi Bear, the term polar bear is neither capitalised nor the subject of fictional commentary; at least, not on this website. In the future, please identify the comenter by name and coment by number that you are respo ding to. MA Rodger 41, the current day sea ice extent according to Charctic is That is Jetfuel is very careful to not tell us that the current sea ice extent is only That there is currently less ice than in the former, and current record September minimum ice years, and that the former record minimim extent ice had more ice in day than did the current record shows how pointless are the statistics jetfuel is quoting.

As jetfuel well knows if he has perused charctic, in May sea ice extent variability is at a minimum. At this time of year, there is the least difference between all years so that current values of sea ice extent provide almost no predictive value in predicing eventual September minimums. It also means that at this time of year there is a maximum ice melt for years with the maximum March extent relative to other years - and it means nothing in terms of determining how low the summer sea ice extent will be.

This repeat and greatly extended series of such posts by jetfuel were he takes data out of context and milks "skeptical" conclusions from them regardless of their actual import or lack of import. He does it so consistently, and persistently in the face of correction that he is IMO not entitled to the presumption of honest mistakes, and I am astonished that his record of misinformation, sloganeering and repetition has not yet resulted in his loosing the privilege of posting at SkS.

Returning to the topic, polar bears are adapted to hunting on ice packs. That makes them poor hunters on land, so that summer months are lean month with many polar bears near starvation by the end of summer. The most immediate threat from global warming to polar bears is from the extended duration before they can return to the ice after summer due to the more extensive summer sea ice melts. The slightly reduced sea ice extents in March are of almost no consequence for polar bears, and also have no bearing on the critical summer sea ice extent values.

CT SIA for the current date is Thus, in warmer Arctic Ocean water, from a thinner ice pack, and with ppm CO2, ice is dissapearing slower than way back when everything had warmed less. I was just noting that the ice area time lines were converging over that short time. Yes, that is a general trend for most years. At least that part is behaving normal this year. If you wish to discuss science then do so in scientific way.

If you are here to amuse yourself with outrageous arguments and trolling, then please find somewhere else for your entertainment. Further offtopic comments will be deleted. DSL, it seems ice loss outpaces most projections. Is only getting down to 4. Multiyear ice is up from , but ice area trails for this day.

That really is the most ridiculous cherry pick I have ever seen on a climate blog. A whole eight days, wow that can't possibly be just weather noise!!! As stated above, your future posts will be carefully scrutinized by Moderators to make sure they are in full compliance with the SkS comments Policy. If they are not, they will be dealt with as appropriate by a Moderator. Your propensity to post "look squirrel" comments tells us that you are not here to engage in meaningful discussions of climate science.

In other words, you are on the cusp of losing your privilege to post comments on this website. Thanks for the pointer to the SIE data source. The same apprarent ignorance seems true for the effects of Arctic topology on the rate of ice loss - it slows up as it retreats through the Bering Straits. Of course, there comes a point when accumulative shenanigans become statistically irrefutable.

Speaking of migrations, over the past few years, there has been a increase of Canadian Geese who have taken up permanent residence in the San Francisco South Bay Area. The strange part about it is that the weather here is actually warm, not cold.

The birds used to be seen here for the winter months, now they are here all year round, hanging at public parks, golf courses, and school fields. Political, off-topic or ad hominem comments will be deleted. Comments Policy You need to be logged in to post a comment.

Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here. Link to this page. The Consensus Project Website. Settings Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed or to completely turn that feature off. Term Lookup Term:. Cambridge University Press. Can animals and plants adapt to global warming? Animals and plants can adapt [C]orals, trees, birds, mammals, and butterflies are adapting well to the routine reality of changing climate.

Mizimi at AM on 2 November, KR at AM on 17 October, Bibliovermis at AM on 18 November, Karamanski at PM on 2 February, Mikemcc at AM on 22 December, Scott Sinnock at AM on 14 May, Stephen Baines at AM on 14 May, Tom Curtis at AM on 14 May, Response: [JH] Your "look squirrel" bloging style is very tiresome and impreses no one reading this comment thread.


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Int J Osteoarchaeol. Genetic structure of human populations. Guan Y. Detecting structure of haplotypes and local ancestry. Download references. We thank Dan Bradley for helpful discussion and feedback. Gillian P. All authors have read and agreed to the content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. Correspondence to David E. Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Reprints and Permissions. McHugo, G. Unlocking the origins and biology of domestic animals using ancient DNA and paleogenomics. BMC Biol 17, 98 Download citation. Received : 13 November Accepted : 13 November Published : 02 December Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. McHugo 1 , Michael J. Abstract Animal domestication has fascinated biologists since Charles Darwin first drew the parallel between evolution via natural selection and human-mediated breeding of livestock and companion animals.

The origins and evolution of domestic animals Plant and animal domestication are justifiably considered to be major human cultural innovations that rank in importance with the manufacture of tools, the conquest of fire or the evolution of verbal language. Full size image. Ancient DNA: the beginnings and early studies in domestic animals and related species Scientists have long speculated about systematically analyzing ancient biomolecules, particularly information-rich molecules such as DNA and proteins for an early review see [ 38 ].

Interrogating paleogenomes to understand the biology of animal domestication The vanguard of high-resolution surveys of livestock paleogenomes described in the previous section signpost the future of archaeogenetics in domestic animals. Forward to the past: the outlook for archaeogenetics in domestic animals During the past decade progress in archaeogenetics has been driven by spectacular technology developments in genomics and other fields.

Availability of data and materials Not applicable. References 1. Acknowledgements We thank Dan Bradley for helpful discussion and feedback. Funding Not applicable. MacHugh Authors Gillian P. McHugo View author publications. View author publications. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. About this article.

And every year, human driven selection would have increased that indehiscent tendency. The second was human selection for productivity. Larger seed size is the typical archeological example. The extreme is maize, human selected from wild progenitor teosinte. Some examples are illustrated below. An exception was the Papau New Guinea domestication of bananas, where larger fruit size was also human selected for smaller seed size.

In Mesopotamia, wheat and barley. In China, millet and rice. In the New Guinea Highlands, taro and bananas. In Mexico, maize from teosinte. Nutritionally, these together provide all 20 essential amino acids. Modern genetic analysis proves beyond doubt that maize originated from the Mexican highland C4 grass teosinte, the original domestication transition finishing about BCE. This is the most famous phenotypical human selected change of a wild type precursor plant.

Modern genetic analysis of the common bean P. Domesticated P. These landraces are all genetically similar, varying mostly in phenotype. How the phenotypes could vary so much without much underlying genetic differentiation is now understood thanks to growing knowledge of epigenetics. The third of the Amerindian trinity, squash C. As a final near simultaneous timing example, hogs pigs are non-foraging so have to be fed domesticated plants.

The pig was domesticated from the Eurasian wild boar Sus scrofa of which there are several subspecies that can be distinguished by variation in mitochondrial maternal DNA. Darwin knew there were two basic domestic pig types, but not why. Similar domestication timing around the world despite very different ecosystems and agricultural crops cannot be a coincidence.

Nor can it be from cultural diffusion of agricultural knowledge; at that time, these areas were geographically isolated. Wiki has a decent overview. The ice cores show that the CO 2 rise lagged temperature rise by about years, the period of the thermohaline circulation.

All trees, fruits, vegetables, and most food crops are C3. The only C4 food crop exceptions are maise, millet, sorghum, and sugarcane. There is an excellent long review paper by Gerhard in New Phytologist on this general topic. The paper describes experiments with various C3 plants over a growing season at the pre-industrial CO 2 ppm and at ppm, below the LGM level.

So at LGM CO 2 levels, foodsheds would have necessarily been quite large, since plant photosynthetic productivity was low. Sedentary agriculture would have been impossible. As CO 2 concentrations rose, foodsheds shrank. Eventually they would have shrunk to the point that permanent settlements with food storage became possible compared to nomadic temporary shelters, with food resources perhaps within just a couple days walk.

At that point, the near simultaneous emergence of sedentary agriculture around the world—despite very different ecosystems—became inevitable. That has proven to be very beneficial. Climate change increased natural atmospheric CO 2 , which in turn enabled agricultural technology development. Which in turn enabled modern civilization. Which enabled exploitation of fossile fuels. Which further raised beneficial atmospheric CO 2. The current further greening documented by NASA is also beneficial, with crop yields rising while needing less water.

The opposite of alarming. Thanks, Rud. Excellent well-explained article. Thought about that a bit while researching the background. Peer review— nope, not my insight. SPMs nope, politicized by definition. But you are welcome to proceed.

Ask her, but suspect she agrees. There they have displays on the progression of human communities laid out sequentially. Thanks to smart phones, when the thought crossed my mind, I was able to bring up a chart depicting ice core CO2 graphs and compare to what I knew from recent studies and vague recollections from a plant physiology class taken in about The concept seemed to make sense.

While I plan to pursue this theory at my own pace, I do not view the idea as proprietary in any way and encourage anyone with an interest and expertise in this area to continue the scientific journey. It is very rewarding to see the interest the idea has created. Thank you for this post. It is very interesting. You certainly have a wide field of interests and are well informed on many that are relevant to climate and energy policy. Well done.

Look up independent invention rather than diffusion re: pyramids. Of course there may have been kindly star travellers who left wonderful things like pyramids and pizza. How else can there be pizza in so many places on our micro planetary orb? Rather than invoking aliens, why not consider the greater plausibility of ancient maritime capability. There is some suggestion of Egyptian sea travel to Java, and later hints including inscriptions of Phoenician voyages to North America.

Then there were the remarkable Polynesians. And much earlier, the migration of peoples from Africa to Australia—though that would have been aided by the lowered sea levels of the last glaciation which exposed the Sunda shelf off of southeast Asia. I have wondered if a lawsuit could be brought against companies that capture CO2 for stealing fertilizer from the air. People who harvest green things that grow should be outraged that their tax money is used to build projects that steal fertilizer.

We elected Trump to stop wasting time and money on these kinds of projects. I have a hard time accepting that Abbott and Perry support and praise this madness. A billion dollars for no benefit, just feel good junk for alarmists. I have always felt our farmers are best positioned to push back by saying we need more, not less, C. Rather have a greener, than a browner planet. Great pictorial example. No matter, you have fixed differently.

The temperature of optimal photosynthesis increases as CO2 increases:. A very controversial statement to suggest , however after reading along,here goes. In order to better feed our growing world population we need more C. Seems our farmers are best positioned to dare to say this.

A greener world is tempting. Rud: There is a fatal flaw with the hypothesis that rising CO2 caused the development of agriculture. CO2 has risen after the end of ice ages many times in the past, but there was a difference between 10, years ago and , year ago. What was it? One difference may be a mutation in the FOXP2 gene critical for human speech during the last ice age.

Whatever difference IN MAN made agriculture possible probably spread around the world during the last ice age. That difference would explain why agriculture developed only after the most recent ice age. I would define agriculture as the deliberate planting of seeds that could be eaten. That requires archeological evidence. Unambiguous archeological evidence for some crops has been found in Mesopotamia and China around 10, years ago, but the evidence is less substantial that early elsewhere.

The earliest sign of corn cobs still very small dates to years ago. Possible middle ground: Rising CO2 and photosynthetic productivity may have made it possible for a greater diversity of mutant populations to survive beginning 10, years ago and at the end of earlier ice ages and for some to be selected that early by man. Franktoo, thought about that, could have but chose not to include in order to provide a crisp post. Now it is possible earlier related species like Homo Erectus spread globally earlier the Homo floresiensis controversy.

So the global presence of Homo sapiens aka Cro Magnon in Europe sets an earliest bound on the possible emergence of sedentary agriculture based logical simple behaviors of Homo sapiens. We did. Separate on logic. Planting saved seeds is a deliberate act. Not a nomadic accident. Technology, and only possible in a sedentary or proscribed seasonal nomadic path the latter logically preceded the former.

Separate on simulteneity. As the post said, phenotype variation did not depend on genetic variation. It was mostly epigenetics. Explained by the common bean example. Please read up on that very new last 15 years knowledge. Ristvan: Thanks for the reply. Which species was changed more by the process, man or crops? The difference was that this time the warming out of the ice age stopped at a perfect temperature cycle and people could stay in the same places longer and there were more people by that time.

Temperature in the modern ten thousand years, in both hemispheres has been bounded in the same bounds. This warm period is better bounded than the warm period kys ago. That period got much warmer and then went back to much colder, keeping people, plants and animals on the move more. A little ice age caused people to move, but major ice ages caused people to move further and faster and they were just walking then, the warming periods back then caused people to move further and faster and they were just walking.

Plants, animals and people could not stay in any place long enough to advance much. The following link leads to a lay persons view hence the Rockyredneck avatar of CO2 science and of climate science in general. Some interesting concepts there, regarding the dangers of CO2 and the its relationship to warming. It contained tools used by inhabitants who lived there about , BC, and if correct that is at least four interglacials ago.

It apparently shows clear signs of domestication and fire use. This means that their combined effect would probably be too weak to trigger an ice age. You have to go back , years to find an interglacial with similar conditions, and this interglacial lasted about 30, years. Just looked that up on Smithsonian website. Evidence of fire, definitely yes. Evidence of sedentary domestic ag from that site, no.

Neanderthals had fire. Likely Homo erectus had fire. Google fu that specific pictorial example. Rud, thanks for your comment Researched more about the subject, there are number of questions casting doubt on time scale authenticity of some items found there.

Madam Curry, I sure appreciate Your desire to let all voices in the climate debate have a forum. But what about a tiny little bit of Quality control, aka peer review? RV, her denizens will be my peer reviewers. Much harsher than anything in academia. Been there, done that. Many times here already. And your specific knowledgable criticism of my carefully articulated hypothesis is? This is called post publication peer review and it is superior.

Plus we have dpeditorial peer review by Dr. Some proposed guest posts are rejected. Good point Rune. Curry lets some real clunkers see the light of day here. This thread is what often occurs in the intellectual fermentation process.

Speaking as an anthropologist and one who has done research on environtmental policy making down in the trenches of US — Mexico air and water issues, I find this issue beyond my immediate ken. Yet, as a teacher of an introductory course in cultural anthropoology, I have to reckon with many topics beyond my immediate research expertise.

Anthropology is an eclectic physical AND humanistic science — from biological anthropology to archaeology to linguistic and socio-cultural anthropology. So, yes, one needs to be able to separate the bs in life, including science and policy, but there are times to reach across the stove pipes of truncated peer mindsets. That is challenging.

So, relax, enjoy the occasional brainstorming. Clearly, increased CO2 meant increased photosynthesis and increased biomass, and improved agriculture. But the rise of civilization is a complicated multifactoral matter. Have to keep CO2 benefits in context. And there were some sharp peoples pre-dating the HCO, including Neanderthals and later the Clovis cultures which either traveled well, or whose ideas traveled well because the points were found in North America as well as Europe.

They do not in any way, shape, or form explain the near simultaneous emergence of neolithic sedentary agricultural technology world wide. Thanks Rud, highly interesting. There were I believe various attempts at cultivation long before the 10, BCE mark. The paper below describes one such in the fertile crescent some 23, years ago, as part of an investigation into the origin of weed species that accompany human cultivation.

Maybe the rise of CO2 was the factor that tipped the balance from failure to success. But at any rate such attempts show that our species of human was culturally capable of cultivation techniques, including the use of sickle blades, some 10 millennia at least before the main agricultural wave. Re critical foodshed size, before rising CO2 drove this down at the end of the ice age, and considering the early attempts per above, perhaps in high bio-density regions e.

Such societies exist in the modern era, of course. But whether one could detect their past presence underneath a modern jungle, would I presume be highly challenging. AW, teacher on meme matters, dunno. Did some preliminary paper research and got lost in peer reviewed bafflegab. Proscribed small annual hunting foodshed radii.

And the Arctic provided their semi permenent freeze storage. The adaptability of Homo sapiens is remarkable. MS, I am beyond cocktail hour. But decline your EJ offer. Some things are just impossible. Now to dinner. Ritualistic food and beverage consumption is a waste of time. I suppose you might delve into the psychology of alarmism among scientists. But yet many scuentists get caught up in the ritual of saving the planet. So, how do we lock them up in science-making laboratories and away from casting planet saving magic?

Science does not have any recommendations about what we ought to do. In California, we passed an initiative to save the mountain lion, but not to save the mosquito. Washington Post article. The basic question is simply energy invest versus energy gained using primitive tools under varying CO2 levels. Pick some early society like Egypt and calculate how many people a single farmer can support with his labor three, for example , and then reduce the plant productivity by a factor determined from lab CO2 studies.

GT, looked into that before posting. There are three problems with your alt thesis. Early large societies did not depend on root crops. Example: the Egyptians that raised the Pyramids subsided on three main domesticated foods: beer from barley, bread from wheat, and beef from domesticated aurauchs. There is no archeological root storage evidence circa BCE beets, onions, carrots… 3. Root vegitables well, maybe excepting modern sugar beets do not provide sufficient calories to be a subsistance food.

Second disproof is the emergence of sedentary ag in Boreno Papua New Guinea highlands Taro is a starchy root crop. You would know in any grodery store as its dry starchy preservative as tapioca. Also, few root crops offer a sufficient mix of vitamins and minerals to allow people to stop hunting and gathering to get an adequate diet. One of the most interesting aspects of the climate issue for me is the notion of good and bad. It all seems to begin with the assumption the human activity is bad.

SLR is bad. Arctic ice however, is good. It remains unclear to me whether it would be good if glaciers were to advance. We seem to be more accepting of the existence of infectious bacteria as a natural variant than our own. It is nice to see the consideration of the possible good. Unfortunately, those of us that consider the possible good in this issue will be accused of being bad,.

David, your comment of ice in the Arctic being good, but maybe advancing glaciers not so much. Once again your thought on the source of huge amounts of moisture to grow the continental ice sheets. Was the western Arctic ice free and warm for most of the last ice age? Hence, these peoples were pedestrians. The likely means of transportation was by boats on bodies of water; lakes, streams and ocean. The best ride is better than the best walk. These bodies of water contained fish and other animals mollusk, lobster crab and crayfish to provide sustenance.

The inland peoples more likely traveled inland on boats and rafts carrying their fishing traditions with them. Planting crops required staying over the winter when the fresh waters froze. Hunting likely supplemented the dried fruits, nuts and berries that could be easily kept and carried.

In the perspective of women, and in particular women who are pregnant, these are pretty fragile creatures vitamins and other nutritional deficiencies. Staying in one place, as opposed to constantly moving from one place to another, would be an attractive alternative as well as providing the socialization needed for child rearing it takes a village to raise a child.

Given the above, my best guess as to the reason for settling down in one place and having a family, was to preserve the tribe with its relatively low birth rate and for maternal survival. The only way to stay and winter was to eat through the poor growing season. To this day, when people are starving, they do eat grass, after all, some animals do it, so…. However, we only have one stomach and not 4 like cows, so people raised cows and other cellulose digesting mammals, who eat grass while people drink the milk.

The C3 and C4 grasses that have become staples, eventually were ground into powder, adding a little water, set aside sometimes allowing the natural yeast to further digest the complex sugars, baked and voila, bread. To preserve the tribe, there was a need to stay in one place and winter.

To winter successfully, people began to mimic the animals around them, and when exact mimicry would not work, find other ways to make what was handy, the grasses, to be made into long lasting and calorically dense foods. Come on down and stay a while. Have a drink fermented grain beverage and a bite to eat. Wine, women and song. Survival at its finest. There is clearly a CO2 effect on plant mass, survival and reproduction — and may be linked to the development of agriculture.

It is not — btw — a new idea. There are a number of complicating factors. The lack of evidence of extinction in glacial periods indicates the likelihood of plant adaptation to low CO2 that is not apparent in modern variants — although there is evidence that there is sufficient genetic variability for modern plants to adapt to low CO2 over generations.

The CO2 effect is most pronounced at low CO2 levels with much less impact at higher than preindustrial levels. A theory says that the African savanna was the nursery of humanity — in which fire was an integral part of the story. It left us us with an upright posture, fine features — which facilitated language — and a big brain.

The latter due to cooked food. The simultaneous development of agriculture is probably overstated as well. Rye was cultivated in Syria from wild stands some 11, years ago, gourds were cultivated in Asia from 10, years ago and grains were grown Middle East fertile crescent some years BCE.

The suggestion here is that there was a tipping point where CO2 levels were sufficient to support agriculture — and It could well be that CO2 gave cultivation an energy advantage over hunting and gathering encouraging development of the technology. An idea far from proven. There is little doubt that deserts are greening — the effect is more pronounced in water limited environments — but that is not necessarily a good thing.

If elevated CO2 causes the water use of individual leaves to drop, plants in arid environments will respond by increasing their total numbers of leaves. These changes in leaf cover can be detected by satellite, particularly in deserts and savannas where the cover is less complete than in wet locations, according to Dr Donohue.

So there are benefits that are exhaustible and far reaching — but unknown — consequences of tropic cascade. Trophic cascade is an idea illustrated nicely by the reintroduction of wolves to Yellowstone National Park. The presence or absence of key species changes biodiversity, species abundance and landscapes.

Changes in aquatic and marine chemistry — and in terrestrial hydrology — will change the global ecology with uncertain consequences for key species within assemblages — even if they are only on phytoplankton.. I am obviously less convinced of the upside and more troubled by the downside than many here.

It seems propitious then that the continued increase in CO2 in the atmosphere is most unlikely. We have lots of coyotes on my fairly large SW Wisconsin dairy farm. Lots of moonlight yapping. I will never forget the recent November deer hunting night at the cabin we heard a wolfpack howl at the moon.

They were transient, but still on my land. Wintered by the round hay bail row way out back. Left in early spring. Helped out with the white tail deer overpopulation in those parts in the meantime. Not just the coyotes and bobcats have trail pics of both.

Agriculture involves being more stationary but as cultures, not as persons. I think humanity is always, following the buffalo, and for the Indians, apparently is was more horsepower that was the route to greater wellbeing of a better nomadic lifestyle…. It seems as though there should be a conventional term for this. It seems redundant to me— i. The better terminology as frequently used in anthropology is to follow Yehudi Cohen s adaptive strategies: foraging hunting gathering , horticulture, pastoralusm, agriculture and later, industrialism.

It had an identical meaning, but in no way implied uncertainty. It was just a Jew thing. Seems stupid. The answer would only seem to emphasize that which is being avoided. What would be a scientific, non-cultural referent to historical and geological time? But then Protagoras reminded us that humans are the measure of all things — like the inch or the centimeter since it is us who pick the metric. I guess the earth is the center of the universe and the earth is flat and I will ruin the atmosphere by driving a car and eating gluten.

My precise post definition, had you checked, was current era. You want to argue, at least get the post definitions right. Ristvan, Interesting hypothesis. Please consider Australia. Populated for 40, yrs or more but almost no evidence of sedentary agriculture across an enormous range of climates. Exception: fishtrap related settling in western Victoria. Refer G. Even though wild or semi-domesticated plants may be an important component of a diet, until you can meet all your nutritional needs vitamins and minerals through farming, you still have to hunt and fish.

So as many North American Indians found, it was easier to keep moving the tribe between temporary villages than to stay in one place. Finding lots of abandoned villages is one reason Europeans assumed that some sort of plague or other calamity must have just struck the Indians, because Europeans would never conceive of just abandoning a settlement as a matter of routine. In Europe villages stayed occupied and defended for countless generations. Hrj, the question is why agriculture did not emerge in Australia.

Certainly there were suitable geographies on the continent. Been doing some reading cause it is a veryinteresting question. There are two irreconcilable views. One asserts that agriculture did emerge, with permanent settlements. The other majority view is that neither practice involves domestication so is not sedentary agriculture.

There are two subtheories as to why. There is more than one pH. D thesis lurking in your question. Thanks,could not agree more, warm times are good times for plants,thus man due to more CO2. Was surprised to see the year time lag for carbon dioxide to follow temperature rise. Today a new archeological site was aged at 14, years. What warming was happening in the Arctic near the Mckenzie River delta during the last ice age?

Origen of man in N. About 24, years ago after holding up in the warm, lush Berring Strait area for 9, years. Same time as continental ice sheet to 40 degrees north. Arctic needed to be ice free to allow huge percipitation to build the ice sheets. Rocky Mountains rain shadowed area from the Pacific. Interestingly — the beginning of the evolution of Modern Agricultural over the march of modern civilization dates back to about months ago….

Reblogged this on How to s.. My primary problem here is that the hypothesis depends on ice cores providing accurate measures of past CO2 levels. The problems with this theory are well known. I am inclined to think that CO2 levels fluctuate naturally, far more than ice cores indicate.

Another problem is that the number of people in a agricultural unit was so small that it is hard to see low productivity as precluding agriculture. Agriculture requires certain knowledge and technology, which has to be discovered and invented, especially food preservation. These might well be more important than plant productivity.

See my above at pm on the 7th. From prior attempts that eventually fizzled out, we know that at least some of the knowledge and technology existed long before the main agricultural wave; in the case of the referenced paper at least 10 millennia before. It seems at least a plausible possibility that the difference between long-term success and the prior failures, was increased plant productivity.

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A thinking mans guide to baseball betting Williams syndrome, human self-domestication, and language evolution. Since neither Rud, you, nor I are anthropologists, we are not supposed to know this much about the origins of agriculture and about the theories that the people studying it propose. Nat Ecol Evol. The results supported a scenario whereby the ancestors of domestic dogs diverged from wolves by 27 kya, with domestication happening at some point subsequent to that event. They showed that there was significant male-mediated gene flow from arid-adapted zebu cattle B.
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Richardson boyd and bettinger temp On a geological richardson boyd and bettinger temp, these changes occurred in the blink of an eye, and this is why they were richardson boyd and bettinger temp costly. Neanderthals had fire. Human Ecology. The natural ocean mediated rise in CO 2 from near plant starvation levels to pre-industrial levels fully explains the similar and roughly simultaneous emergence of sedentary agriculture globally, as a simple function of plant primary productivity, foodshed dimensions and natural human behaviors. This is the story of precision agriculture, in which we use more bits, not more kilowatts or gallons. Ina French group showed that DNA could also be extracted and analyzed from mammalian teeth [ 59 ], again an important technological breakthrough for archaeogenetics in domestic animals. Wallingford: CABI;
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Winning horse betting strategies Pigs were also separately domesticated about 8 kya in East Asia from a population of wild boar genetically distinct from those in Southwest Asia [ 424 ]. A high observed substitution rate in the human mitochondrial DNA control region. When climate changes too fast for species to be able to adapt, extinctions are bound to occur. First domesticated in Europe about b efore the c urrent e ra BCE, and note this term itself conveys inherent timing uncertainty. Not really, because climate is not a factor.


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An unprecedented combination of climate stability and warm temperatures made instability of earlier epochs made it impossible (Richerson, Boyd, & Bettinger. temporáneos de que poseía la teoría correcta sobre los orígenes de la mente hu- last few million years (Richerson, Boyd, and Bettinger, ; deMenocal. The vertical scale shows the temperature of Greenland ice surface (C o) in the instability of earlier epochs made it impossible (Richerson, Boyd, & Bettinger.